The objective of this article is to understand the current situation of artisanal fishing in the Moroccan Mediterranean (Belyounch, Fnideq, Martil and Kaa asras), and the components that characterize it (techniques, target species, boats, seamen, etc.). by analyzing the data collected from a survey conducted in these sites. The study is carried out through surveys between April 2014 and June 2014. The artisanal fishing sector in the selected sites could be characterized by different components. Thus, we can note the following characteristics: Presence of about 308 active boats; and direct employment offers to almost 1160 fishermen. Twelve gears are used in all sites. They are divided into three major groups: traps, nets and hook-and-line gear, in addition to dragging. The fishermen practice 12 techniques, with 2 to 3 methods per boat. The fish species most caught by fishermen are: (besugue, bug, sea bream, dorado); cephalopods (octopus, squid, cuttlefish); clupeidae (Sardine, Allache); carangidae (horse mackerel) and the smooth clam.
The capture of the crabs of the genus Callinectes is one of the income generating activities of the waterside communities of Benin. The present paper aimed to provide basic information on the reproductive parameters of the main crab species of this genus in Benin’s lagoons. The crabs were collected from february 2017 to january 2018. The sex-ratio of Callinectes amnicola is not different from the theoretical rate of 1 male for 1 female (p>0.05) in contrary to Callinectes pallidus (p<0.05). The first maturity size of Callinectes amnicola males is 11.87 cm (East Complex) and 10.78 cm (West Complex), respectively. For females, the size of first maturity is 10.07 cm (East Complex) and 11.20 cm (West Complex). The first maturity size of Callinectes pallidus male is 9.99 cm (East Complex) and 9.17 cm (West Complex). Callinectes pallidus female are mature at 7.68 cm (East Complex) and 6.45 cm (West Complex). Breeding of both species occurred at Lake Nokoue in areas near the Atlantic Ocean from february to may. The ovigerous females of Callinectes amnicola with carapace width greater than 9.5 cm are more productive than those of lower widths. All collected ovigerous Callinectes pallidus females show good reproductive productivity.
Irrigated crops are the government's preferred option for combating the quasi-structural food insecurity in rural Niger. These crops are developing in a context of degradation of natural resources, especially water and land, the main factors of production. In the rural commune of Dan Barto and in the other rural communities of Niger, the increase of the yields must pass by an efficient control of these principal resources. This study, which focuses on the evolution of water and land resources, aims to analyze the evolution factors seen by local populations in order to promote irrigation in the area. The methodology was based on an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data collected in the field using an interview guide and a questionnaire. Two types of interview (individual and focus group) allowed the collection of data. The main results show that the Dan Barto site exploits surface water. This resource has evolved according to the majority of farmers. Irregular rainfall and silting are the main causes. With regard to the land, it is the mode of access that knows an evolution, diversifying around the inheritance.
Several educational approaches are applied in educating disabled people. Notably: separated or discriminatory education, incorporated classes within ordinary schools and inclusive education. Many Congolese educative operators advocate that there is no way to educate together invalids and valids in ordinary classes. Hence they ignore new theories of reference which sustains integrative or inclusive education. This article is updated in order to enlight and to enable them with useful information related to scientific basics of this new approach. We think that DRC needs this information to realize its objective of education for all to what it has subscribed for several decades.
The aim of this article on educational alignment in mathematics and French in Goma primary schools is to: "Check whether, during the teaching-learning process, Goma primary school teachers apply the theory correctly pedagogical alignment ". In other words, check if there is consistency between the components of the pedagogical alignment. The results of the study show that these teachers have shortcomings in the application of this theory. Training is therefore necessary.
This study is about operationalizing the objectives of mathematics and French learning and their appropriateness to the evaluation issues in Goma Adventist elementary schools. It aims
- To verify if Goma Adventist elementary school teachers make mathematics and French learning objectives operational in accordance with Mager’s three criteria (action verb, achievable and measurable).
- To verify also if the evaluation items that they submit to the learners are consistent with the starting objectives.
The investigation results reveal that teachers in Goma Adventist elementary schools have serious lacunae in the theory of pedagogic objectives operationalization and that training in this field is therefore required.
This work aims to identify potentials sites suitable for mining research through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The method of pair comparisons by the hierarchical analysis process developed was used to the ponderation of criteria to generate different thematic maps. By the technic of complete aggregation based on the ponderation, these different maps were combined to produce the indicator map to result in the synthesis map. The map of potential sites for the auriferous mineralization which is a synthesis map reveals that 10% (350Km² or 3500ha) of the study area is moderately mineralized, 30% (1050km² or 1050ha) is mineralized and 13% (455Km² or 45500ha) is very mineralized. This map is of great importance for possible auriferous explorations. It highlights the auriferous potentialities of Katiola department.
The increasing salinization of Sine Saloum river basin lands is on a scale that far exceeds the current reclamation and use capacity of populations. For this, a biomechanical design associating a levee network and Tamarix aphylla (L.) H.Karst as a biological pump was implemented in Ndiaffate village in 1998. The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks with three treatments, a control and five replicates. The treatments were three planting densities (4 x 3, 4 x 4 and 4 x 5 m). Ten years later, it was important to evaluate species and its effects on salinity and acidity of studied lands. Systematic monitoring of plants was conducted. Diameter, height and number of T. aphylla stems, salinity and acidity of the experimental plots were measured. Data analysis shows that planting density has direct effects on T. aphylla growth and undirect effects on soil salinity and acidity. The 4 x 5 m treatment seems to give the best success rates and growth. A significant difference was found between height, diameter and regeneration means. A follow-up of the amplitude of chemical parameters’ seasonal variations seems to be necessary.
Like many cities in the world, the city of Abidjan has experienced, in recent years, a significant development of market gardening. At the same time, the popularization of urban agriculture is controversial in terms of food security given the exposure of crops to pollutants, including trace elements, generated by agricultural practices and urban activities. In this work, we have compared, by a principal components analysis, the potential for the accumulation of five trace metals, cadmium, copper, lead, zinc and nickel, by three market garden species, lettuce, spinach and amaranth. The market garden species came from two market gardening sites, Marcory and Cocody, and the experimental plot of Nangui Abrogoua University. The results showed that lettuce has a greater capacity for accumulation of the five metals than for spinach and amaranth. However, amaranth and spinach from the three sites showed almost the same metal accumulation capacity.
The use of synthetic oxytocin is now widespread in the stimulation of labor, almost substituting the normal physiology of childbirth and yet it remains a high-risk molecule. The objective of this study was to determine the maternal prognosis after augmentation of labour with oxytocin in our maternity wards. A case-control study of women who gave birth in three health reference facilities. The sample was of convenience consisting of 824 women in labor with a good prognosis of vaginal delivery at admission. We maintained 412 stimulated cases and 412 unstimulated controls, thus 1 case for 1 control. The software EPIINFO 2000, 7.2.2.version and SPSS 20 version helped us to analyze the data. The results reveal a high labour stimulation rate in the city of Goma is 54%. The stimulation protocol was not respected: Bishop score was not evaluated in 56.8% of cases with 91.3% of cases stimulated by a high dose of 10 IU of oxytocin diluted in 500 ml. There were short intervals of increase ≤ 29 minutes in 18.5% of cases and 90.6% of the stimuli did not receive tococardiographic monitoring. The maternal prognosis was characterized by a high frequency of cesarean section (OR=1.95), artificial delivery (OR= 25.50), the post-partum hemorrhage (OR=2, 29) with (p < 0, 05). The resuscitation for disseminated intravascular coagulation (OR=1.29) and the maternal death characterized by (OR= 2.00). Unregulated augmentation of labor by oxytocin involves in increasing maternal morbi-mortality.