Breastfeeding is essential in infant’s growth and development. Thus, several thousand children suffer from insufficient breastfeeding. Dealing with that, Tigernut (cyperus esculentus L.) is used by rural populations for his Lactogenic properties. This study aims to bring out the potential of nut on mammary gland development and milk production in wistar mice by the histological approach. Mice are divided into four groups; groups 1 and 2 represent respectively the negative control group (rabbit food and water) and the positive control (rabbit food and medicine standard), groups 3 and 4 are tests groups and are fed by tigernut. The histological sections of the different groups were observed using an photonic microscope OPTIKA 4083 B3. A significant development of the mammary glands is noted in the mice of lots 3 and 4, an expansion of the alveoli, and glandular ducts was observed, the connective tissue is invaded by many dense fat cells, the muscle bundles are denser and held the milk ducts are filled with dense granules of protein aceous nature. In group1 rare fat cells are identified and muscle bundles distended. The mammary glandular units present an empty light, a thick and hypertrophied epithelium with tall (non-active) cylindrical cells. The milk ducts are dilated and empty. Lot 4 (positive control) has clusters of granulations of protein nature, the fat cells are very dense comparable to those of batch 4 and 3. This results confirms that tigernut has lactogenic properties.
Synchronous vulvar and breast cancer is rare. A 49-year-old women presented a lesion in the the retroareolar region of the left breast and a lesion located in the vulvar region. She underwent breast conservation surgery with resection of the nipple-areola complex with axillary lymph node dissection and radical wide local vulvar excision with inguinal lymph node dissection. The pathology of the breast showed infiltrating ductal carcinoma and that of the vulva revealed squamous cell carcinoma. Only tree such cases have been previously reported.
Cette revue bibliographique rassemble les informations publiées sur le baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) et ses différentes parties. Les résultats recensés dans la littérature ont fini de montrer toute la variabilité morphologique et phénologique du baobab. La production fruitière est attribuée à des caractères génétiques, des phénomènes physiologiques et des conditions pédoclimatiques. Les graines de baobab sont très riches en protéines, en lipides et en glucides. L’huile des graines de baobab prisée par les industries pharmaceutiques et cosmétiques pour ses propriétés nourrissantes, émollientes, adoucissantes et antalgiques sur la peau.
Cette revue bibliographique rassemble les informations publiées sur le baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) et ses différentes parties. Les résultats recensés dans la littérature ont fini de montrer toute la variabilité morphologique et phénologique du baobab. La production fruitière est attribuée à des caractères génétiques, des phénomènes physiologiques et des conditions pédoclimatiques. Les graines de baobab sont très riches en protéines, en lipides et en glucides. L’huile des graines de baobab extraite le plus souvent, de manière artisanale, par pression ou par solvant est actuellement très prisée par les industries pharmaceutiques et cosmétiques. En effet, la composition de sa fraction saponifiable et insaponifiable ainsi que ses propriétés physico-chimiques permet de ressortir toute la qualité de cette huile. Par ailleurs, les propriétés des méthyl esters de l’huile sont très similaires de celles du colza. Ainsi, l’huile est reconnue pour ces propriétés nourrissantes, émollientes et adoucissantes sur la peau. Elle est utilisée dans le traitement des blessures, des douleurs, des affections dermiques, des cheveux, des ongles, de l’acné, de l’eczéma et du psoriasis.
The present paper is a reading of painting of Congolese miseries in «Mathématiques congolaises» by In Koli Jean Bofane; a Congolese writer who is passionate about Congolese literature over the last two decades. To cary out this study, we used sociocritical, thematic and pragmatic methods. The interest of this activity lies in the fact that the image of the Congolese as represented in this novel presents life in the Congo as a sterm and each one tries to draw his cassava from the fire. The article focuses on the infernal life in the Congo, its violence, painting and misery. The text focuses on the relevance of the words used in this novel.
The objective of this paper is to estimate the combined effect of tax shocks on economic growth. More explicitly, in order to assess the dynamic interactions between economic growth, tax structure and tax burden, impulse response functions of growth are estimated using a vector autoregressive model. The regression results suggest that a tax structure based on indirect taxes is more favorable to economic growth. Moreover, tax burden has a negative effect on growth.
The coastal unit between the Vridi canal and the Port-Bouët lighthouse, south of Abidjan, is the subject of this study. It was followed over two periods (November 2015 and October 2016) following the eviction, downstream, on the waterfront of several precarious neighborhoods (Derrière Wharf, Adjouffou, Gonzagueville, ...). This study uses GPS data coupled with worksite level data to reconstruct the morphology of the study area as well as its description and evolution from different beach profiles. The acquired data is processed from the software "MapSource", "Excel" and "Surfer". For each profile, the different morphological units of the range were determined from classical terminology. In general, all the recorded profiles have a straight or concave shape. This is characteristic of an unbalanced beach profile with sand start and erosion. The length of the profiles varies between 16 m and 53 m. The elevation difference is between 4 m and 7 m with a variable slope (2.86 ° to 14.03 °). They are reflexive beaches with a strong erosional tendency.
This paper aims to evaluate the non-linear macroeconomic effects of fiscal policy on activity in Morocco. We estimate a three-variable MS-VAR over the period from 1990 to 2015 (quarterly basis). The results reveal that the economic activity in Morocco experienced at least one regime change in 1998. Indeed, two regimes emerge: i) the first one occurs over the period 1999 to 2015 and the ii) the second one from 1990 to 1998. In both regimes, fiscal policy does not significantly affect economic activity, and so its effects can be qualified as non-expansionist. Moreover, fiscal policy is found to be pro-cyclical especially over the period from 1999 to 2015, displaying a non-Keynesian behavior. In other words, the fiscal policy in Morocco does not play its role of stabilization policy.
This study analyses the profitability of organic and conventional cotton in Benin and assesses their determinant factors. The research was carried out in three districts including Glazoue, Banikoara, and Tanguieta. Those localities belong to different agro ecological areas. For the purpose of this research, we used a quantitative approach based on structured interviews. We adopted a stratified sampling in three stages (national, regional and local levels). In all, we interviewed 215 household-heads (males and females), of which 111 conventional farmers and 104 organic farmers. It stands out that cotton production (both conventional and organic) is profitable in all the three areas. Organic cotton is more profitable than conventional cotton in spite of its lower yields. In fact, organic cotton farmers make use of locally available inputs, which are cheaper than the chemical inputs employed by conventional farmers. Moreover, organic cotton farmers benefit from premium, which combined with the low costs of production compensate the yield gap. Overall, the main determinants of the profitability of cotton (conventional and organic) include: the intensity of technical support, amount of credit, quantity of family labor force, level of education, practice of fallow, and the quantity of family labor devoted to pesticide sprays.
The present study is part of the Home Garden project and Domestication in the Sudano-Sahelian region of Cameroon. The aim of the work is to contribute to the promotion of Moringa oleifera Lam. for its better valorization in Cameroon. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among 158 stakeholders of Moringaceae in 15 communities in the Sudano-Sahelian zone through the Rapid Participatory Reseach Method (RPRM). The questionnaire is based on the knowledge, practices and indigenous knowledge of the people on M. oleifera. It appears that the leaves and seeds are the most commercialize in the region. The leaves, roots and seeds are the parts used in traditional medicine. Famer’s of the Sudano-Sahelian area of Cameroon treat 19 diseases with the different parts of the plant. Six diseases (dental caries, HIV / AIDS and malnutrition, diabetes, high blood pressure, sore eyes and typhoid) are commonly treated in the study area. The plant would be introduced in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Cameroon by the Fulani to 17siècle. The Guiziga, Mafa, the Moufou and Toupouri use six criteria based leaves, pods, seeds and trunk to distinguish each trees of M. oleifera. These qualitative criteria can be used baseline data for the morphological characterization of the species. These results can be used as database for the selection of ecotypes solicited by populations.