Waste office paper is a major component of solid waste of which thousands of tons are produced daily. The cellulose section of waste office paper can be hydrolyzed by cellulase enzymes into glucose a fermentable sugar. Relative high and low cellulase concentrations from Aspergillus niger have been used to degrade waste office paper that was 100% and 50% covered with ink. Office paper free of ink was also exposed to these enzyme concentrations at incubation temperatures of 300C, 400C, 500C and 600C. The ink free office paper showed the highest degree of sugar formation at a concentration of 23 mg.ml-1 during an incubation at 500C and when treated with the highest enzyme concentration. The highest amount of sugar (18 mg.ml-1) produced from office paper 50 % covered with ink when exposed to the high cellulase concentration was obtained at 400C whilst an incubation at the same temperature resulted in the paper 100 % covered with ink to be maximally degraded producing a sugar concentration of 17 mg.ml-1. When exposed to the lower enzyme concentration maximum bioconversion of all office paper materials (100 % as well as 50 % covered with ink and ink free) was obtained at 400C with sugar produced at concentrations between 2,8 and 6,6 mg.ml-1.
It has been observed that no organization can exist without human and material resources. In the educational organization, teachers and students are the basic factors for which the school as an organization is established. Therefore, the success of any educational programme in Nigeria greatly depends on the performance of the teachers on their job. The scenario here depicts that, any nation who desires to achieve the set objectives of her educational organization must recognize the teacher factor. It is necessary to reiterate that the central process of quality and quantity in education boarder on the impressive array of teachers' performance spectrum. In lieu of this exposition, the teachers in the school system should be adequately remunerated for vital service and proficiency in their job.
Over 50 years, some local NGOs and partners fight against malnutrition as a whole in the region and other support vitamin deficiencies (A) without tackled the problem upstream.
Food insecurity, far from being fought from the causes and curb, moved with acuity despite the potential available to households involved in the production of tomato.
The answer to food insecurity would increase by a tomato crop, which requires just the minimum phytotechnic appropriate care in the conduct for growth and maintains the production that previously did not respond to the overcrowding due to leakage demographics.
In precarious conditions and substantive in nature, the production of tomato knows several constraints and cause it does not grow, in order of importance note that we found that 64, 8% of our small producers reach not 20 meters of usable area, but also the land imbalance over 90% do this activity with the same period of the year by purchasing more than 90% do this activity with the same period of the year by a discount price to markets and 80% do not use soil management systems (without cultural association, rudimentary techniques, not improved seeds) and not followed in the conduct of Culture (the phytosanitary control, respect to pyrotechnic standards).
By the time the needs of the everyday use of qualitative and tomato in households falling in step with its production which pushed to seek opportunities and whose intensification ISFM practices (Integrated Management of Soil Fertility) and integration into the mini-livestock (guinea pigs, rabbits, chickens, pigs ...) seem convincing to go up the balance in the diet.
This study aimed at determining the relationship between principals’ leadership styles and teachers’ indiscipline in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. Two sets of questionnaire, the Principals’ Leadership Style Descriptive Questionnaire (PLSDQ) and the Teachers’ Indiscipline Descriptive Questionnaire (TIDQ) were constructed by the researcher, and they were validated by three experts. Descriptive Survey design was adopted. A sample size of 120 teachers was used. Mean score and pearson product moment correlation were used to provide answers to the research questions. The findings indicated that there was a positive relationship between the principal leadership styles namely autocratic and democratic leadership style with teachers’ indiscipline. This relationship was significant for teachers of different years of experience. Recommendations were finally made for an improvement.
The article deals with the version of origin (date, place) of Zodiac taken from the book of Carl Schwartz (1807) dedicated to the origin of the constellation and Zodiac. Considering the procession, Schwartzcertifies that the constellation was marked as a unique complex by an observer residing on the shore of the Caspian Sea, in Baku, at the latitude of 40 degrees north. He considers the date of origin of the constellation and Zodiac 1400 years B.C. (or 1400 years B.C. - 2800 years B.C.).
Tackling the different problems faced by breeders of cattle in Mbinga-Southern area and promotes a sense of local communities for a self-management towards sustainable development in pastoral terms is key to make a selection of a productive system.
The goal is to improve the quality of livestock and its considerable production performance and at the same time, the concern that each breeder in Kalehe Territory, particularly those of South Mbinga turn their eyes on the application of new methods livestock for their high production.
The average number of cattle raised in the household is 6 cows, but farmers are exposed to enormous difficulties such lack of spawners, improved breeds, lack or under information regarding proper livestock grazing are low quality and insufficient, and no momentum is established by the state to help farmers.
It returns a load their self-management for the promotion of pastoral sector by the selection and purchase of broodstock improved breeds, for quality food systems, controlled reproduction and regular care for cattle in an intensive system stabling abandoning the As the extensive system which is the practice in which most breeders operate.
The increase in yield in the production of amaranth and eggplant merit review the integration aspects of these vegetable crops to the raising of pigs from the need for soil nutrients in the chiefdom Ngweshe, a unit of significant size and located south west of the town of Bukavu, capital of South Kivu province.
Households living market gardening developed a system that leads to couple raising pigs to agricultural activities. Since the supply of fertilizer (organic and inorganic) requires the money on one hand and on the other pork raised in rural areas requires dietary supplement in addition to the feed and which also requires financial resources, this study shows the integration focused on the production of quality manure from buying cattle feed given to pigs and vegetables increased yield due to soil amendment by manure.
This was from the investment for the food to benefit in converting market gardening production. The increase in yield of vegetable gardens following the use of manure from pigs reared in households, the quality and quantity of manure produced before are improved integration. Production of pig fed forages and supplements bought from the fields’ income increases of over 50%. T hired household income after covering a production cycle in this system of production increases twice in both cases. This is observed in the increase of crop biomass and increased weight gain in animals and it is seen in terms of money when selling.
L’article analyse les comportements de clients particuliers des banques et leur impact en termes d’exercice des options cachées. Les risques subis par la banque sont ensuite illustrés par l’utilisation d’un modèle comportemental, qui dépend essentiellement de taux d’intérêt, appliqué à un portefeuille actif passif pour projeter les flux et mesurer la perte potentielle (VaR). Les résultats montrent que la VaR du portefeuille actif-passif baisse suite à la diminution d’arbitrage des dépôts à vue avec les autres produits du passif bancaire. On constate également, qu’en cas d’absence d’arbitrage des dépôts à vue, la VaR du portefeuille actif-passif est toujours nulle quelque soit le taux de remboursements anticipés.
The capitalization of the farming techniques for food security in Benin has been studied. The effects of climate change and the rainfall changeablenesses have modified not only the dates of seedling but also the abandonment of some speculations. In order to ensure their food security, the populations have revisioned their farming techniques. The climate data which were used for this work are obtained with the ASECNA and those socio-economic were collected near 300 producers. As a matter of fact, in the north 40% of the yielded speculations today can be considered as introduced twenty years ago. In this area in the years 60s there are crops such as yam, voandzou, maize, peanuts, and garden pea. The current crops are yam, maize, and sorghum. Crops such as peanuts, voandzou are more and more withdrawn from the speculation ranges. Furthermore, the situation in the centre of Benin is enough animated. In effect, about 65% yielded speculations in the past were abandoned at the profit of new estimated ones more adapted to the current climatic conditions. To ensure their food security, the populations have spared the speculations such as maize, yam, and peanut. Crops such as sorghum, millet, voandzou and garden peas are almost given up and replaced by soya which represents now the speculation that occupies 45% of the farmed surfaces. In the south of the country, about 30% only of the farming techniques have undergone changes. The climatic changeableness has provoked for instance the introduction of cotton crop which in the past was quasi impossible.
Bukavu, a town which currently has over one million of people, while it was built for a capacity of only 100,000 souls experiencing serious household waste management problems. We targeted the area populated by no less and in which the buildings are up to anarchic make it difficult and even complicated waste management and all kind of household waste. Household waste to the tune of 15 to over 50 kg per family are thrown into unspecified locations which often easements created by erosion. These wastes are diverse ranging from biodegradable compounds to non-biodegradable compounds. Note that in most cases occasional dumps are created based on natural pollution sources or plumbing leaks REGIDESO or low class families draw water for domestic use. The virtual absence of garbage, inadequate recycling or waste disposal, the use of well water (bizola) and the upsurge of waterborne diseases are key elements to address this issue of great significance. These puddles and garbage dumps are nests of mosquitoes and other microbes responsible for malaria and some waterborne diseases. This issue therefore aims to provide a solution to track in the household waste management in order to improve public health in the city of Bukavu.
This study assessing the adoption of three varieties of rice altitude marshes come from the Agricultural Research Center / RUBONA of Rwanda to the soil and climatic conditions of eastern DR Congo, specifically NSRF / Lwiro in Kabare territory in South Kivu.
Furthermore, we observed that the rooting of these four varieties length corresponded to that determined by several authors, the longest being that of the control variety (Vo46) followed by the variety FACAGRO 56. This confirmed that soil of eastern DRC is of good structure and texture and is well ventilated; which facilitates root development and mineral nutrition.
Variety FACAGRO 908 is placed in first position with respect to the number of productive tillers. This depends on factors like good spacing, early weeding, soil fertility and favorable genetic heritage.
As regards the weight of 1000 grains, and Vo46 varieties WAT 1276-22-2 were considered good productivity as giving a higher weight of grain (32g).
This difference in weight is due to the size of the seeds of these varieties with respect to others.
Irrigated rice is the system that gives the greatest return with 4-8 t / ha of paddy, the results of these tests have shown that all tested varieties are profitable with the head of the ranking, the Vo46 variety. The variety Vo46 had produced 7,26t / ha followed by the variety FACAGRO 908 with 5,567t / ha then comes WAT1276-22-2 with 5,133t / ha and 56 FACAGRO with 5,033t / ha.
For the past decades, many banks and financial institutions around the world have been motivated in implementing electronic banking due to the fast advances in information technology. Despite the significant growth of informatics in banking, electronic banking is still underutilized among banks and other financial institution in Ghana. This study, therefore, enriches the current knowledge on influential factors that affect individual behavioral intention on adopting e-banking. Thus, this study employs Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in examining the factors that affect person’s behavioral intention in adopting e-banking by expanding it with three other variables which are prior internet knowledge, Information on e-banking and perceived credibility. Survey questionnaire was randomly distributed to a total of 210 respondents who are customers of public and private banks located in Kumasi, Ghana. In all 193 were fully completed representing of 91 percentage.
On average, the results indicates that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, prior Internet Knowledge, Information on Electronic Banking and Perceived Credibility are significant determinants of customers intention in E-Banking using TAM. This outcome reflects both theoretical and practical consideration in promoting e-banking services in the current competitive industry in Ghana.
Energy production by combustion of S-containing non-renewable fuels requires huge consumption of limestone for the necessary Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) treatment in order to meet stringent SO2 emission limits. FGD (wet, dry or semi-dry) is an expensive, energy intensive, process due to its overall poor efficiency and to the need of using finely micronized CaCO3. Wet FGD laboratory tests with dolomite slurry have shown that up to ≈ 50% higher performance and faster SO2 uptake occur if the mineral is micronized by high energy mill, yielding mechanochemical activation of the solid. Further benefits arise from the use of dolomite which consistently contains Mg carbonate.
The aim of this paper is to comprehend the key risks in construction projects in India and to develop strategies to manage them. Risks are prioritized according to their significance of influences on typical project objectives in terms of cost, time, quality, safety and environment and then scrutinized from a joint perspective of project stakeholders. Postal questionnaire surveys were utilized to collect data. The survey includes two groups of data, the likelihood of occurrence of each risk and its magnitude of outcome on project objectives in terms of cost, time, quality, environment and safety. Based on postal questionnaire, a total of 25 key risks were ascertained which context to highlight the unique risks associated with construction projects in Tamilnadu. Strategies to manage the risks were sought from the perspectives of project stakeholders and the management of risk is incredibly affected by the uniqueness of the construction industry in a specific country. It is concluded that clients, designers and government bodies should take the responsibility to manage their relevant risks and work cooperatively from the initial stage onwards to minimise the potential risks in cost and time. Contractors and subcontractors with robust construction and management knowledge should be employed to reduce construction risks and carry out safe, efficient and quality construction activities.
This paper aims to analyze the contribution of logistics information systems to the company's performance. Methodologically, we mobilized a theoretical exploration based on a meta-analysis research concerning the use of information systems in the logistics activity. The results allow us to determine the benefits brought by using logistics information systems in companies.
The micro mirror is a versatile MEMS device which is mainly used for light deflection and control. The micro mirror state is controlled by applying voltage between the electrodes around the mirror arrays. Electrostatic actuation is the methodology used for precise control of mirrors. We have designed arrays of electrode of different dimension which produces different tilting angle. We have analyzed that when aspect ratio of fixed electrode is increased corresponding tilting angle get increased linearly. Also, analyzed that when applied voltage increases corresponding tilting angle gets increased. The micro mirror is designed and the deflection value is simulated by using COMSOL Multi physics Software.
The component of Bi3.6La0.4Ti3O12 was prepared by hybrid process (sol-gel hydrothermal) at low temperature 400 °C. Bismuth acetate, lanthanum acetate and titanium isopropoxide were used as metallic source. By X-ray diffraction, the Bi3.6La0.4Ti3O12 ceramic has single Bi4Ti3O12 phase of Aurivillius type. The assignment of the infrared transmittance bands, especially in the region 400– 1000 cm-2. Dielectric properties of the obtained material at different frequencies 100 Hz, 1 kHz and 10 kHz as a function of temperature were investigated.
The various Aurivillius oxides, SrBi2-xLaxNb2O9 (x=0, 0.5), were synthesized by using the conventional solider state reaction method. Phase analyses were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses and Raman spectroscopy. Microstructural morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Curie temperature, maximum permittivity and activation energy decrease with the increase in La content.
The present work aimed to introduce Hail University experiment in institutional self-assessment in 2013/2014 academic year, the University aimed from this assessment to analyze the current situation of Hail University using institutional self-assessment technique, this is one of the requirements of National Commission for academic accreditation and assessment in Saudi Arabia before introducing for local accreditation. The study used the descriptive method its suitability for the nature of the current study. The results indicated that, the University is suffering from some weakness points in three activities. The most strength points in Hail University appeared in community services than teaching and learning activities. However, Research activities came in the third rank.
The effects of metal ions (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Mn) on the life cycle and ability of two Trichoderma species to compete in the soil were searched.
The strains of T. harzianum (Tcomp) and T. viride (TV1) presented a slowed mycelial growth (respectively 31 - 22 and 57.16 - 59.33 mm; 20 - 14.76 and 17.16 - 14.83 mm) on agar media supplemented with 200 and 400 mg/L copper and ferrous sulphate salts. By cons, in the presence of different concentrations of magnesium, zinc and manganese sulfates, mycelial growth varied between 66.66 and 90 mm compared to controls. Conidia production of the two strains was null in the presence of 400 mg/l of FeSO4 and reduced in the presence of different concentrations of other salts varying between 0.37 and 1.97 105 spores/mm2 compared to the controls, 4,50 105 spores/mm2 for Tcomp et 4,10 105 spores/mm2 for TV1
The neutral pH became acid after culturing of the two strains in the liquid medium with or without the test salts varying between 3.75 and 5.71, except in the presence of TV1 in media supplemented with FeSO4 and MgSO4. In addition, the two Trichoderma strains showed a very strong saprophytic soil activity exceeding 80% at a concentration of 100 mg/L of the salts tested.
The ability of strains of Trichoderma to grow up and to show great saprophytic activity in the presence of metal ions and other soil fungi, suggests the possibility of using them for the remediation of contaminated soil.
Background: Over the preceding few years, the rate of individuals that have been living without health insurance has continued to increase exponentially. This paper the aim was on investigating the factors determining the demand for health insurance among migrants Botswana. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted between August 2013 to January 2014 in Gaborone and Francistown. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to describe the characteristics of the sample and to identify factors associated with participation in the health insurance. Results: The likelihood ratio chi-square of 42.09 with a p-value of 0.0000 indicated model as a whole fits significantly better than an empty model. We can say that for a one unit increase in employment category level, the odds in favour of owning insurance increases by a factor of 0.31. Conclusions: The results from the study revealed that gender of an individual was significant in determining the health insurance ownership among tuberculosis patients. A possible policy solution that would make health insurance compulsory would help to increase the demand for medical aid scheme.
Background: However much research has been carried out with mine workers, truck drivers, and other migrant groups, few studies have investigated the risk factors of construction workers, which form one of the largest employment groups in Botswana.
Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome -risk behavior among construction workers in Botswana. Data of 500 workers was collected using structured questionnaires with purposive method.
Results: More than quarter (33.4%) of respondent’s engaged in unprotected sex. Forty point two percent had experienced sex with Commercial sex workers. Multivariate analysis discovered that living with friends/relatives [Adjusted Odd Ratio 95% Confidence Interval; 2.7(1.89-6.01)], and monthly salary [Adjusted Odd Ratio 95% Confidence Interval; 2.0(0.83-3.85)], were statistically significant to influence condom use efficacy.
Conclusion: The paper suggest that migrant worker’s lack of awareness about the need to receive prompt treatment, the lack of monetary resources, mostly among women, are all conceivable reasons that people in the study delayed seeking treatment.
Lachi Poverty Reduction Program aimed at developing and promoting a replicable model for rural poverty alleviation. It is a research and development project set off to improve the livelihoods of over100, 000 people in Lachi Tehsil of North West Frontier Province Kohat District. The project was initiated in April, 2000 with a proposed period of five years. LPRP has adopted multi- pronged strategy to ensure maximum return from crop production, animal husbandry and utilization of available natural resources. Based on this a study was designed to evaluate the effect of crop production program under LPRP, to evaluate the LPRP innovations regarding crop production, to study the application/adoption of these innovations by the farmers and to draw conclusions and recommendations for further improvement. The study was conducted in 09 representatives Union Councils of Tehsil Lachi, District Kohat. Interview schedule were designed in order to collect complete and correct information. The data was analyzed using computer program SPSS. It was observed that 45% of the respondents were in the age of 40-45 years and 23% were 30-40 years. Forty two percent of the respondents were illiterate, 25% were up to primary and 06% were above metric. Fifty nine percent of the respondents were having medium landholdings in the range of 12.5 acres. Twenty three percent were having less than 5 acres. Tenancy status of the farmers shows that 77% were owners of the land, 08% tenants and 15% were owner-cum-tenants. LPRP introduced different varieties of wheat, chickpea and groundnut. Daman-98, Tatara-96, KT-2000 and Uqab in wheat, KK-1 in chickpea and BARD-479 in groundnut were adopted by the people. The statement that the innovation of seed villages practically implemented was agreed by 60% of the respondents. Sixty three percent of the respondents were agreed that the schemes introduced by LPRP have given them more returns than the one they were doing. Forty five percent were agreed that these trainings were of practical application. Results of this study showed that LPRP has brought a positive change in the attitude of farmers in the project area.
The objective of this study is to examine key challenges hindering the implementation of E-learning systems in Ghanaian tertiary institutions and to recommend practical measures that would ensure the attainment of its fullest potential. Most institutes of higher learning in Ghana have initiated reforms geared towards E-learning adoption. However, the execution of this laudable concept of teaching and learning has not been without its associated implementation challenges. Thus, affecting the realization of all the advantages associated with E-learning. The objective of the study therefore is to ascertain key problems hampering the implementation and utilization of successful E-learning systems in Ghanaian tertiary institutions. Data for the study was gathered through the deployment of questionnaire, interview and secondary data. The survey comprises of 163 respondents made up of School authorities, Faculty members, ICT staff and students of 4 tertiary institutions in Ghana.
The results revealed that the introduction of E-learning comes with inherent challenges that must be dealt with by both Government and implementing tertiary institutions in order to derive all the advantages that comes with it. The study concluded by proposing conceptual recommendations that will enhance the success rate of E-learning implementation by institutes of higher learning in Ghana. In addition, the study suggests that the opportunities with this mode of teaching and learning by far surpass the challenges.
With increasing requirement worldwide, the advent of desalination technology using carbon nanotubes to address energy issues seems a practical option. This project intends to provide an in-depth insight on the application of MWCNTs to heighten the performance of seawater desalination in a universal manner. The mechanical and chemical properties of this material to facilitate excellent flux of water transport and salt rejection are outlined. The raw MWCNTs are modified accordingly and subsequent tests are then carried out to study the characteristic changes of MWCNTs. With use of FTC apparatus, desalination trials are then carried out for various samples and concentrations that help in optimization of desalination technique using MWCNTs. Cost effective measures are then analyzed and are modified accordingly. By measuring the TDS before and after we show the efficiency of the desalination process with each sample and concentration. The current hurdles and future challenges related to this technology are also addressed.