The massacres against the Tutsi in November 1963 - March 1964 in Rwanda: qualified as the crime of genocide built on an ethnic ideology for long time propaganda of hate taught by the colonizers. These last used the theories of social inequality of Europe by classifying the Rwandan in different ethnic groups. Thus, before the establishment of a republican regime in 1961, the ideology of the genocide was already in action. Therefore, the tragic result of this ideology manifested itself in 1959, the year during which the hatred of the Hutu against the Tutsi materialized by what has been called «the social Revolution of 1959 ». The reign of Kayibanda lasted only 13 years under the motor of the PARMEHUTU. This played a key role in the spread of ethnic hatred through speeches, rallies and newspapers. This long journey of the inculcation of the ethnic group perpetrated the divisionism ideology which flourished on the massacres against the Tutsi in 1961, 1962, 1963-1964 and in 1973. But the massacres of November 1963 to March 1964 were the most monstrous, where the government of Kayibanda was the most to carry out the genocide against the Tutsi. In this regard, the government of Kayibanda paralleled the raids of the « Inyenzi » for massacres of the Tutsi who lived inside the country. That said, thousands of Tutsi civilians were massacred in the eyes of the ruling regime in only three months. The most affected was former Gikongoro prefecture, located in the south-east of Rwanda. For this reason, several high personalities of the time and international agencies have raised against these skilled killings genocide. After the alarm raised by these international organs, the government of Kayibanda, stopped the massacres of civilians officially.
Malononitrile is a commonly known and widely used reagent in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, fungicides, solvato-chromic dyes, and organic semiconductors. The unique reactivity of malononitrile promotes more extensive applications of this reagent in organic chemistry even compared to the use of other known CH-acids such as malonic and cyanoacetic esters.
The balance of policy development implementation in Africa since the 1970s is quite mixed. The development is not the only economic growth function. It constitutes a means to access an intellectual, emotional, moral and spiritual existence. This participates to indicate that as such, development is indivisible of culture. Today, it is increasingly found that, it is a development rooted in the culture, and sensitive to local context which is in fact likely to be sustainable. The objective of this reflection is to raise the fundamental place that must occupy the culture in the process of Cameroon's development, and suggest the mechanisms by which it could actually be incorporated into the national project of emergence. This work is mainly based on an empirical analysis of international institutions' documents, and the experience of countries that have emerged in relying on their culture throughout the world. We hypothesize that the identification of social cultural models and their taking into account in the formulation of the policy of Cameroon's development could be significant asset to the achievement of an inclusive and sustainable development in Cameroon. Clearly, these procedures may allow Cameroon to take into account local cultures in the national development project long term. It is education and enhancement of local languages.
Support for occupational integration of youth in the agricultural sector is a major contemporary concern in most developing countries. Not only does this support is perceived as a means to provide self-employment to many unemployed youth, but also a way to boost the rapidly emerging of a new generation of farmers adequately prepared and equipped to meet the challenges of today's agriculture and future. The scope of this article spans the critical analysis of the strategies implemented through the stimulus package for the integration of youth into agriculture with particular focus in the Menoua division in the West Region of Cameroon. First, the study highlights those aspects of the support provided by these projects in the context of the integration of youth, and second other aspects which would require more emphasis for an optimal integration. Out of 18 stimulus packages put in place to support the integration of youth in the Menoua division, 10 were subject to investigation. The findings show that 5 out of the 10 stimulus packages assessed deal with a specific type of support (including information sharing, training, or financing of vocational projects for the youth) meant to facilitate youth integration. In addition, 5 others work simultaneously on information and knowledge sharing, training and resource mobilization including the granting of funding. It is clear from the study that the insertion rate of youth assisted varies depending on the type of support provided to them by the various listed projects. The stimulus support packages operating in the Menoua division funded vocational projects of 336 young farmers for a total funding of XAF 57,991,444 in 2013 (Euro 88,408). This support accounts for XAF 172,593 (Euro 263) per young project proponent, an amount somewhat insufficient to sustain a viable project. Hence, support in the implementation of vocational projects is key as several hurdles are encountered during the realisation of the project setting up phase, including lack of access to productive assets as land tenure. Such support would also provide mentoring of youth as part of the implementation of their respective projects. We equally suggest setting up in each locality a consortium or platform of actors and stakeholders engaged in the support to the integration of youth to ensure pooling of efforts and synergy, complementarity and coherence across interventions. It appears challenging for just one structure to offer full support needed by a young project proponent, and the scales of municipality and division might be the most appropriate for operating these platforms.
The issue of the use the use of French language in Africa has always fueled scientific and academic research. The present reflexion questions about the recurrence and perpetuity of syntactic "mistakes" of "3ème" students in writing, although they learn grammar rules since primary school classes. This logic appears to be a fact which merits attentions because of the norm taught by public power and teachers who did not take in consideration some sociolinguistics context. The notion of socioculture considered as prism in the writing process of student has some influences on these processes we can qualify as "indigenous". Written expression is always considered though as correct, pure, logic, and normalized. Our corpus in this survey show this language is different from French. Writing practices of the students is proving it. Some grammatical confusions and generalization have been record in student's essays. This article envisions describing, analyzing and understanding the perpetual accordance mistakes in written French by students of this class compared to the normative form.
In this paper, a new Iteration Algorithm is examined to provide an approximate solution of a model for HIV infection of CD4+ T-Cells. This method allows the solution of governing differential equation calculated in the form of an infinite series, with components that can be easily calculated. The reliability and the efficiency of proposed approach is demonstrated in different time intervals by numerical example. All computations have been carried out by computer code written in Mathematica 9.0
Morphometric analysis is important in any hydrological investigation and it is inevitable in development and management of drainage basin. The present study is an attempt to evaluate and compare various morphometric parameters and prioritization of micro-watersheds based on water holding capacity of Kokkayar sub-watershed, a typical highland sub-watershed of Manimala river basin. Morphometric analysis and prioritization of micro-watersheds have been achieved through measurement of linear, aerial and relief aspects of basins by using remote sensing and GIS techniques, and it necessitates preparation of a detailed drainage map. For prioritization, 9 micro-watersheds are delineated and morphometric parameters such as Rb, Dd, Fs,T, Lof and C are calculated separately and prioritization has been done by using the Raster calculator option of Spatial analyst. The analysis reveals that the stream order varies from 1 to 4 and the total number of stream segments of all orders counted as 200. Lsm varies from 0.50 to 7.55. Higher value of mean Rb (4.17) (linear parameters), higher values of Bh (0.08), Rh (0.07) and Rn (3.02) (relief parameters), high values of Dd (3.2), Fs (6.3), T (5.63) and low values of Lof (0.16) and C (0.31) (aerial parameters) all together reveal that the sub-watershed has a complex structure, mountainous relief, high runoff and low infiltration. The maximum area is covered by high prioritized zones (12.72 km2) followed by very high (10.63km2) while very low zone is only 9.37 km2.
More than five decades after the publication of Camus' Reflections on the Guillotine (1957), capital punishment continues to wreak havoc around the world, the scene where fanatics and abolitionists confront each other. The fanatics have always supported this punishment on the ground of its supposed deterrent power and/or of its supposed social utility. As to the abolitionists, they oppose this punishment in the name of: the sacredness of every human being (human rights activists); the risk of putting to death innocent people, and the prudence to avoid irreversible punishments, as well as the inability of death sentence to be really deterrent. This article extends the abolitionist argument, but from an existentialist perspective, denouncing the absurdity of sentencing to death a being-for-death and calling into question the juridical status conferred on capital punishment. It argues that, as all humans are sentenced to death from conception, death penalty is only a futile and cruel act, and that, as death sentence aims at the annihilation rather than the moral reformation of the criminal, it does not deserve any juridical status.
One of the Millennium Development Goals is expansion of access to safe and reliable water sources to all by 2015. Rural areas in Nigeria are characterized with lack of access to potable water which has contributed adversely to public health and welfare of the rural dwellers. Concerted efforts have been made by government to improve access to safe drinking water. This study was therefore carried out to examine willingness to pay for potable water by rural households. A multistage sampling method was used to obtain a sample size of 107 respondents for the study. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression model were used to analyze the data. The respondents were mainly male, married with mean household size of four and mean age of 44 years showing that a good proportion of the sampled respondents were in their economic active age. Community well and streams were the most common water sources while none of the households had access to piped water. The Mean Willingness to Pay (MWTP) for water from safe sources was found to be N150 (0.91$)/20litres. Results also revealed that educational status, household monthly income, quality of water, reliability of water, connection charges, and distance to water source are the significant factors that influence the probability of households' willingness to pay for potable water. Therefore, in designing improved water supply system and services for rural areas, water service providers must ensure reliable service, improved quality water and proximity to the source.
This paper is a case study which aims to examine how today's techniques related to different livelihood activities, but also in the social field, are acquired and transmitted among Batwa (pygmies) and Ntomba (bantou) communities living in the two villages (Moheli and Wedji in Congolese jungle. The method used is to ask a sample of informants randomly selected if they can do the activity requested, and if so, who showed it to them. Results revealed that Batwa are distinguished Ntomba in activities for which they are recognized as experts and connoisseurs, namely collecting honey, hunting net and spear, collecting wild yams, and the songs of the ceremonies. We notice that the differences, however, explained more by the age and sex of informants by belonging to an ethnic group or residence. The gender differences are similar for the Batwa and Ntomba. However, hunting, honey collection, preparation of palm wine, the felling of trees for the cultivation and construction of houses are more clearly mastered by men than by women in both groups. Young Batwa is unsurpassed the Ntomba in forest-related activities such as hunting spear, shelter construction in the forest, and collecting wild yams and mushrooms. We find that the collection still holds today an important place in livelihood behavior of the Batwa, but also for Ntomba, include food.
Parasites communities of the pompano, Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces; Carangidae) were studied in terms of helminths parasites species composition and with descriptions of prevalence and intensity infection. This pelagic fish is commercial in morocco and is performed on aquaculture. Between November 2012 to January 2013, 146 specimens were purchased from the harbour of Cap Water or Ras El Ma (Mediterranean Coast Of Morocco) and examined for parasite infection. Four species of helminths parasites were collected and are reported in this work: Digenean : Lepocreadium trachinoti (Wang 1989) ; (Acanthocephala : Pomphorhynchus françoise (Golvan and Houin 1963) and Rhadinorhynchus cadenati (Golvan 1964); Nematoda : Camallanus singhi (Zaidi and khan 1975). These species were recorded for the first time on the Pompano in Mediterranean Coast Of Morocco. Rhadinorhynchus cadenati was the dominant species with highest prevalence (55, 9%), mean intensity (5, 02) and abundance (6, 81).
This work carries a novel method that uses demands response strategies to develop and evaluate the consumer's perspective through a computational experiment approach. The price of electricity is assumed to be a time-varying parameter. The proposed method describes an optimization model that adjusts the hourly load level of consumer with response to hourly electricity prices. This approach has a home energy consumption simulator and a demand response mechanism obtained through optimization, particle swam method, and an integrative computing platform that combines the home energy simulator and MATLAB together for demand response development and evaluation. A lot more number of demand response strategies are developed and evaluated through computational experiment technique. This work investigates and compares characteristics of different demand response strategies and how they are affected by dynamic pricing tariffs, seasons, and weather. A simple bidirectional communication device between the power supplier and the consumer enables the implementation of the proposed model.
A diploma is one of the indicators for the measurement of the educational level of an individual. In Cameroun, it remains a good distributed within the working population age with the young population accounting for an average of 43, 6% of the total population. With this, one predicts a high potential school request. In this respect, the Sectorial Strategy of Education, which arises from the Document of Strategy for Growth and Employment (DSCE) set-up by the Cameroonian Government, stresses on the training and the development of the human capita in order to equip each citizen with the capacities necessary to build an emergent economy by 2035. Comparatively, there is need to examine the relationship between economic growth and education. The objective of this study is to analyse the role and the place of education in the socio-economic development of Cameroun, by the means of an existing documentary review and data of investigations into education carried out by the National Institute of Statistics (INS) in Cameroun. From this, we arrived at the conclusion that education is in the middle of the socio-economic development of the country. However, the offer of education and the level of insertion of the graduates remains very weak. This situation requires an additional effort of the authorities and the partners of development in the direction of professionalising the educational system in Cameroun.
The present paper focus on reduction of drag force behind a bluff body by using a passive method. Numerical simulations have been carried out for ten different isolated cylindrical geometries at a Reynolds number of 100. Influences of corner radii on the drag force behind a two dimensional bluff body have been investigated using ANSYS FLUENT. It was found that the critical radius at which the drag force turned to be minimum compared to the circular cylinder was R=D/3. The results in terms of the bulk parameters like time history of drag and lift coefficients, Strouhal number, recirculation length and contours of pressure, vorticity and streamlines have been discussed.
Aim: To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of green tea extract against two primary colonizers in vitro and to evaluate and compare the antiplaque efficacy in vivo with 0.2% chlorhexidine. Materials and methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.2% chlorhexidine and green tea were determined in vitro using agar dilution method. A double-blinded, parallel, randomized, 4 day plaque regrowth clinical trial was designed and conducted to determine and compare the antiplaque efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine (group1) and green tea (group 2). Thirty subjects (15 males, mean age 31.9 years), participated in the clinical trial, and the plaque index (Silness and Loe 1964) were compared at the 5th day. Statistical analyses for evaluation of plaque growth and comparison between groups were performed by independent t test. Results: Green tea mouthrinse shows effective antibacterial action against two selected primary colonizers. When compared between groups chlorhexidine hows least MIC. Both groups showed an effective reduction in plaque re-growth. When compared between groups, chlorhexidine showed more plaque control efficacy than green tea, but the results were not statistically significant (p= 0.778). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that green tea shows effective antibacterial against two primary colonizers with an antiplaque action which is comparable with 0.2% chlorhexidine.
The increased demand by consumers for fresh-like, safe, nutritious, convenient and flavorful packaged foods have paved the way for the continuous emergence of novel food processing technologies. A number of innovative thermal methods including sous-vide, microwave, radiofrequency and infrared heating and non-thermal methods including high hydrostatic pressure, irradiation and pulsed light technology for processing of packaged foods, have become the subject of active research and development. This article reviews some state-of-the-art approaches used for decontamination of packaged foods with discussion relating to the mechanisms of microbial control, applications to food and limitations associated with their implementation for pre-packaged foods.
This article focuses on the post war period, a largely forgotten issue of the study of the history of Great War campaign in Cameroon. The paper analyses how in the First World War aftermath, Kamerunian soldiers who have been enrolled in the German colonial army (Schutztruppe) adapted to the new socio-economic and political contours created by the departure of their military masters. Drawing from the theoretical framework of "New Military History", and using mainly primary records like archival materials, interviews and then secondary literature, the article will re-interrogate the social trajectories of these soldiers, and the challenges they faced in the post Great War period. How these soldiers rehabilitated themselves and adapted to the new socio-political and military environments imposed by the French and British victors following the Great War expeditions, will be examined. This helps link the past with the present, and brings to light the sacrifices of Cameroonian military men over time.
The effect of silylation of cellulose on electrical properties is investigated by tracing the changes occurred in the dielectric constant, dielectric loss and the activation energy of dielectric relaxation. The test samples are activated cellulose with ethylene diamine, with sodium hydroxide and unactivated cellulose before and after silylation. The measurements are carried out within the frequency band 10 5 to 10 7 Hz and the temperature range from 10 to 50 0C using multi-deka-meter. Cellulose molecules are more activated by treatment with ethylene diamine than with sodium hydroxide. Generally, silylation causes a marked decrease of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss, meanwhile the silylation samples are affected with the pretreatment of linters with sodium hydroxide and ethylene diamine.
Retention of students in secondary schools is an important move as it gears towards the fulfilment of convections which advocates for Education For All (EFA). Many of the studies already conducted have examined the theories that relate to student departure/retention more than the role of institutions in students' retention. As such, the author sought to examine the administrative strategies employed by various school administrators to guarantee secondary school students' retention in Aldai Constituency. The study also sought to explore the challenges faced by school administrators in their application of administrative strategies to ensure students' retention. The study adopted a mixed methods research design. The target population comprised public secondary schools in Aldai Constituency, their respective administrators, classroom teachers and Form Three students. Secondary schools were selected using stratified random sampling technique. The basis of stratification was school type. School administrators were purposively sampled. Simple random sampling technique was employed in selecting the classroom teachers. Questionnaire, interview schedule and content analysis were the main instruments of data collection. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected for the study. Qualitative data was analyzed descriptively by computing frequency counts, percentages and measures of central tendency. Multi-linear regression analysis was computed to establish the most ideal administrative strategy that could be employed to ensure maximum students' retention. The study established that school administrators employ free communication, provision of bursaries and grants, enhancement of school culture and raising of school motivation levels administrative strategies in ensuring students' retention. They, however, encounter social, school and home-based challenges in their administration. The study recommends that free and open-communication should be reinforced and applied by all school administrators since it ranked highest in influencing students' retention. The study also recommends that the government should increase budgetary allocation for school bursaries and grants to ensure that needy students from vulnerable backgrounds complete their education.
This paper assesses head teachers' and teachers' perception of the role of instructional supervision within the school environment based on a study conducted in Eldoret West District, Kenya. This study utilized the descriptive research design and was guided by the theoretical framework based on Kolb's experiential learning cycle as developed by Kolb, Rubin and McIntyre in 1974. It targeted head teachers and teachers in both public and private secondary schools in Eldoret West District. To obtain the study sample, the target population was stratified into two categories, i.e. private and public schools. From each stratum, 30 per cent of the total numbers of schools were selected for inclusion in the study. All the head teachers from the selected schools automatically qualified for participation while the teachers were selected through simple random sampling. Data was collected using a questionnaire and an interview schedule. The collected data was analyzed descriptively using means and percentages. The data analysis was done with the aid of Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. From the study findings discussed in this paper, it can be concluded that the perception of the teachers on the type of supervision is both negative and positive. Positively, the teachers view supervision as a learning activity both for them and the head teachers. Further, the teachers view supervision as an interactive activity in which the head teacher and the teachers engage each other constructively. As such, on a larger scale, supervision is viewed positively. However, some teachers feel that it is a mere routine and only cooperate so as to keep their jobs. Supervision is also seen as a way of pushing lazy teachers, thus the teachers being supervised are viewed as being lazy and unprepared. The study recommends that there is need to incorporate the elements of quality and standards in the supervision criteria and purpose.
The aim of this present work is to find out, which arrangement for finned tube bundles is better for achieving higher heat transfer rate and better pressure drop and other turbulent effects. All of work is done only on two Arrangements (i.e. inline and staggered Arrangement). In this paper a new Arrangement (i.e. Crinkled 450 Arrangement) is developed for 36 solid circular finned tube bundles. This paper investigates the problems of heat transfer, pressure drop and thermal hydraulic performance of inline and staggered arrangement of finned tube bundles. To minimize these problems Author gives a new finned tube bundle arrangement named as CRINKLED 450 Arrangement. A Steady State approach, with a two-equation turbulence model, is employed to examine the prediction of results and analysis. A Computational Fluid Dynamics FLUENT 14.5 is used for Performance Analysis of Arrangements. The modeling of arrangements is done on CATIA V5 and it is imported into the FLUENT 14.5 and in this a steady state pressure based solver and standard k-epsilon turbulence model was used. The proposed method based on a finite volume method and integral averaging of gas temperature across 36 tube row is appropriate for modeling of plate fin and tube heat exchangers, especially for exchangers in which substantial gas temperature differences in one tube row occur. Analysis was done on Modelled 36 solid circular finned tube bundles in cross flow positioned at Inline Arrangement, Staggered Arrangement and Crinkled 450 Arrangement.
This article provides a conceptual framework for measures of practical application at the Region Skhirate. The abusive use of nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides cause negative impacts on the quality of the wells, agricultural intensification can lead also to the degradation of groundwater quality resulting in problems such as salinization, codification, compaction and nitrate pollution, this study tends to affirm the results already achieved by the experts on the quality of water wells, to assess the degree of degradation of these resources. The analysis by the method of logistic regression is a statistical technique to establish a relationship between a dependent variable and explanatory variables, to examine the associations and make predictions. One can, for example, be interested in quantifying the relationship between the quality of well water in the area Skhirate and risk factors that we will discuss later. In terms of future projections in terms of rainfall and water availability, this initiative could she manage to keep the vision of Morocco as a country that wants to farm? Can we consider irrigation as to sufficiently seen the amount of land suitable for cultivation, or rather is already a problem in the ability to see the irrigation water quality to use?
Authorship attribution tries to identify the original author of an unattributed text or document. Authorship attribution is a challenging task as it becomes quite difficult to identify original author automatically. Stylometry and authorship recognition or attribution is used interchangeably. Normally authorship attribution is done on the basis of lexical, syntactic and semantic features of a document. More recently, the problem of authorship attribution has gained wide variety attentions in the field of forensic analysis, electronic commerce etc. In this paper various feature selection, reduction and classification techniques are compared for attributing authorship of a document on PAN CLEF 2012 data set. LDA performed 12% well over all other classifiers.
The article summarizes the history and cultural legacy of the Roma thru time. It provides new information about the Roma heritage, the origin of the name Roma, the reasons for migration of the Roma from India, awakening of the national consciousness, their culture, language, art, poetry, music and folklore. The article contains a short biography of the greatest Roma scientist Dr August Krogh who received the Nobel Price Award for Physiology or Medicine in the 1920.