Most of mechanical components in the engineering are frequently subjected to the fatigue damaging process because of the great number of stress cycles they have to undergo. This paper presents an elaboration of two of the most studied methods for the computation of fatigue life in multiaxial fatigue. We describe the reformulation of Sines and Crossland fatigue criteria, which have been adapted so that they could preserve the observed detrimental influence of a tensile mean stress and the observed beneficial effect of a compressive mean bending stress. The proposed reformulation of Crossland and Sines criteria is applied to a general sinusoidal in-phase or out-of-phase bending and torsion stress state, for which analytical formulae can be derived. From the theoretical results calculated according to the present propositions, the criterion proposed by Sines was found to be the most precise in preserving the detrimental influence of a tensile mean stress and the observed beneficial effect of a compressive mean bending stress. On the other hand, the criterion proposed by Crossland was found to be precise in the multiaxial fatigue limit prediction. This analysis shows that the proposed procedure is very efficient, suggesting that Sines and Crossland fatigue criteria remain valuable fatigue evaluation tools for the mechanical design industry.
In many situations encountered in engineering practice, structures or structural elements are under thermomechanical cycles of loading. The use in this condition of traditional fatigue criteria in high cycle fatigue is no more advisable because on structures, these criteria are formulated for the prediction of the number of cycles for the nucleation of cracks in the isothermal situation. In this paper, we propose an extension of stress invariants based criteria, for the anisothermal high cycle fatigue. Our proposal is essentially based on the hypothesis of accommodation at macroscopic and microscopic levels. The simulation made from the fatigue strength of the proposed ansiothermal criterion reproduced qualitatively the expected results. The proposed modified criteria will enhance the account the account of the multiaxial and anisothermal character of thermomechanical loadings.
This study has been carried out in the rural health area of Katana. Its objective is to determine the socio-economic impact of the environment on the population's health and to clean up the milieu (area, environment) in which the concerned population lives. The study has been carried out due to malaria endemism (endemicity) in the area and its frequency in each family. The results obtained prove that malaria as endemic disease is one of the major causes of the population's poverty, children's lack of schooling, morbidity (un-healthiness), social conflicts and negative impact on family economic.
The pest survey was used, preceded by one month of a pre-survey in North Kabare . In addition, the method of direct and detailed observation, systematic sampling and identification key was used. The aim of this study is to know the damage and the use of extracts of plants by coffee farmers farmers North of Kabare .The result of the study shows that the family of Arthropods (Thumbtack of the coffee and Thumbtack lace) causes enough damage to arabica coffee than other families like Thysanoptera (Thrips reel), Lepidoptera (Chenille rodent leaves and moth drupe) and Coleoptera (Hanneton of the coffee) and farmers have knowledge in combating insect pests coffee but they have no notion of the active principles of plants and the dose to be used .dropoff window Furthermore, the leaves of Tephrosia voegeli , Tithonia diversifolia, Tabacum nicotiana and Capsicum frutensis mixed with local know the name of "Kifebe" are effective.
The pest survey was used, preceded by one month of a pre-survey in North Kabare. In addition, the method of direct and detailed observation, systematic sampling and identification key was used. The aim of this study is to know the culture system and to assess the impact and severity of the disease raging coffee (Coffea arabica). The study shows that the cropping system as practiced is associated coffee and the majority of Kabare Northern coffee plantations suffer of Anthracnose, the rust and leaf spot thus fungal diseases. Coffee trees suffering with Die back, their branches, sometimes their branches, black and dry out gradually from the end and lose leaves, those of Anthracnose, green drupes growth appear small dark brown spots, black, rounded oval, markedly depressed that expand quickly. For rust, small yellow circular spots appear on the underside of leaves and leaf spot, small chlorotic points that extend and turn brown.
The present work proposes the determination of the rainy thermical rhythm in three parts in Luhwindja based on the North, Center and South which has not been known for a long time. The south area of Luhwindja is better watered to some extent with 1753mm of water a year and the more less hot has got the everage yearly temperature of 17.4 degree centigrade. As the matter of fact three is not any month which is dry and scows can be transcorried the whole year; the monthly "ETP" being inferior to precipitations of all the twelve months of a year. The North's area of Luhwindja with a yearly rainy thermical of 1553mm the everage temperature is 19.2 degree centigrade. It is the part less watered with three months which are affected by atmospherically drought during (June, July and August) are affected by pedological drougth; the "ETP" being superior to precipitations for the three dry months. The Center receives on the one hand, precipitations coming from the North and on the other hand those of the South. It realizes 1611mmof water per a year and an everage temperature of 20.5 degree centigrade with three months affectedby atmospherically drought (June, July and August). On average the whole Collectivity of Luhwindja receives 1639mm of water per year and a temperature of 19, 03 degree centigrade.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of green purchasing strategies on sustainable supply chain performance at Unilever Tea Kenya Limited. The general objective of the study was to analyze the effects of green purchasing strategies on sustainable supply chain performance at Unilever Tea Kenya Limited. Environmental compliance, systems development and implementation, integration into core corporate function and total quality approach were identified as the key variables that guided the study. The target population was (120) from which a sample size of (92) was arrived at. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire sent out to supply chain departments at Unilever Tea Kenya Limited through stratified random sampling. Data was analyzed using both descriptive statistics (mean, frequencies, percentages and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation). After correlation tests were run, all four hypotheses were rejected and the alternative hypotheses accepted. The study established that environmental compliance, systems development and implementation, integration into core corporate function and total quality approach affects sustainable supply chain performance. The study recommended that more organizations especially in developing countries like Kenya could adopt and fully implement green purchasing strategies when sourcing for goods or services. The study further suggests for similar studies in other tea buying companies in Kenya which are in the process of implementing green business practices.
E-commerce is the procedure of doing business through computer networks and Internet. In this Paper, we have analyzed the various factors affecting the growth of E-commerce such as technology, market, supply chain and security. With the ability to track customer's activities, mapping their social networks and come close to them proactively, present personalized offerings and administer individual lifecycle has changed the E-commerce over the past few years. The success of the virtual store depends on many issues such as security, trust etc. Research was undertaken to authorize and create the relative significance of these attributes. E-commerce which was basically started in early 90's had taken an immense leap over the world but security and economic market are some of the hindrances which affects the growth of online business. The major advantage of E-commerce over traditional way of shopping is that customers can browse online shops, compare the prices and order the merchandise sitting at home with their laptops or PC's. This paper divulges that E-commerce is restricted and complex practice which involves the utilization of a focused cross-functional team to undertake a variety of barriers along the way.
An ecological study of the aquatic mollusk Pila ovata has been realized in the aquatic ecosystems of Katana region, south Kivu, East of the Democratic Republic of Congo, which shelters this species. Ten aquatic- ecosystems have been prospected in this region according to the current speed of water, the bottom's nature, the pH, the temperature, the depth, the aquatic vegetation, the altitude and the shade degree. Here, it's about the study of favorable ecological conditions to this species in the aquatic ecosystems of the Katana region. For ending at reliable results, the sampling of mollusks has been practiced using the standardized unity of time method. The harvesting of mollusks has been done generally with the help of cloudy water trickle with small stitch of 2 mm attached on an iron bar having a circular opening of 50cm of diameter fits with a lumber handle of 1.5m. The harvesting of mollusks has been done by manual picking, and then put back in their nature biotope after counting. The favorable ecological conditions which prevail to the proliferation and to the survival of the mollusk Pila ovata are respectively: a minimum lightning (minimum plant cover), an abundant died aquatic vegetation, a minimum current, a sandy bottom or muddy on the one hand and a moderate temperature (≥ 160C) on the other hand. A highly significant difference has been observed between aquatic ecosystems of the region all the more that the mollusks number differs between sites. The knowledge of the ecology of this mollusk is an asset for the study of the fight against the intermediate host mollusks of Schistosomiasis.
Monthly and seasonal fluctuations in densities of land snails were recorded in four different sites (forest, fallow, cultivated area and wetland) in Katana region during the period of January to December 2013. The aim of this survey is to study the population dynamics of the land snails of the Katana region considering some geo-physical factors (rainfall, relative humidity and temperature) in different habitats. The study revealed the occurrence of 31 species of land snails belonging to 9 families of class Gasteropoda. The land snail species and their total catch were: Limicolaria laeta medjensis (225 specimens), Limicolaria distincta (195 specimens), Ataxon faradjense (159 specimens), Achatina achatina (147 specimens), Lehmannia valentiana (118 specimens), Achatina tincta (108 specimens), Curvella bathytoma (98 specimens), Trichotoxon pardus (78 specimens), Trichotoxon ruwenzoriense (75 specimens), Burtoa nilotica emini (72 specimens), Nothapalus paucispira xanthophaes (69 specimens), Trichotoxon maculatum perforatum (68 specimens) ,Pachnodus rutshuruensis (66 specimens), Gymnarion aloysii-sabaudiae (65 specimens), Mesafricarion putzeysi (64 specimens), Cerastus bequaerti (60 specimens), Gullela pupa ituriensis (58 specimens), Helixarion insularis (58 specimens), Bukobia cockerelli (56 specimens), Mesafricarion maculifer pilsbry (56 specimens), Perideriopsis fallsensis (56 specimens), Achatina fulica (54 specimens), Burtoa nilotica obliqua (52 specimens), Pleuroprocta silvatica (52 specimens), Pseudoglessula walikalensis (35 specimens), Achatina osborni(31 specimens), Loevicaulis schnitzleri (17 specimens), Subulinuscus ruwenzorensis (6 specimens), Homorus amputatus (4 specimens) , Theba pisana (4 specimens) and Arion rufus (3 specimens) in a descending order. The densities of the recorded land snails varied seasonally and the general seasonal peak was recorded during rainy while the lowest density observed during dry. Ecological factors which may influence the distribution or variation of the recorded land snails were also determined (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall). We remarked that the rainfall and the relative humidity were the two main ecological factors which influence the distribution or variation of the land snails in Katana region.
Our objective is to assess the environmental issue based on the percentages of the main biophysical and ecological phenomena in question released by the group of French researchers. Among the main environmental problems are particularly climate change, air pollution, scarcity of water, deforestation, pollution of water, waste management, biodiversity loss, population growth, population movements, deterioration of soil ecosystem-equilibrium, chemical Pollution, Urbanization, thinning of the ozone layer, energy, consumption, new diseases, degradation of natural resources etc... The study we noted that climate change is at the top of the main environmental problems of a percentage of 51%, the scarcity of fresh water by 29%, deforestation 28%, biodiversity loss 23% , waste management 20%, urban 23% and decrease in ozone 15%... And last comes the increased sea level Therefore one might conclude that climate change is closely correlated with urban policies in industrial energy and transportation. In a context dominated by the struggle against the emission of greenhouse gases, problems of air quality should not be underestimated and policies relating to climate protection must be taken into account.
Change and decision making is a common term in organizations and businesses. Decisions are affective in placing the organization ahead of the pack and also enables it perform successfully. Change is inevitable in any field or process in life. We have to undergo changes but the question is; what significance does the change have on the overall performance of the organization? What are the requirements for the changes in terms of resources? Changes are made by managers to increase their performance in the market which increases their market share in their existing markets and exploit the emerging markets effectively.
Decision making in businesses is effective in propelling towards achieving its short term and long term objectives. There are a number of techniques used in decision making but the most commonly used which most businesses use is group dynamics. Group dynamics is a characteristic of any group that is useful in achieving the objectives of the group; providing solution to towards the objectives of the subject company.
Problems are unexpected outcomes in any business establishment and they cannot be avoided. They only thing that businesses can do about it is identifying the problem, identifying the root causes and developing a sustainable solution. Sustainability of the solutions ensures that the problem or related problem is well managed. It also ensures that the problem is identified early before causing problems to business operations. In this paper, the process of investigating and solving a problem is discussed.
Leadership as we know it has changed, with deeper engagement necessary for the engagement of employees. Autocratic power exercised by leaders has diminished in the knowledge economy, where employees hold the knowledge capital of the organisation, engaging at a deeper level helps in leadership. Leadership by directing is gone, and this has been replaced by leadership by engagement. The leadership styles that are most popular – transactional and transformational are discussed, and it is observed that the latter style is more effective in the post-modern era. As leaders are decision makers, the efficacy of making decisions that are suitable or beneficial to most of the followers is viewed as a success criterion. Therefore, leaders must develop a plan to reduce information asymmetry within organisations and develop a consultative and participative system of generating opinions when making decisions. Such approaches help the leader in mitigating the risks involved in analysing diverse ideas and also by taking people into confidence of the constraints that are there in the decision to be made.
Entrepreneurs are often confused with business owners. Entrepreneurs create new businesses through new ideas and create new business models. Entrepreneurs are innovators of the market. The theories behind finding the crucial element in entrepreneurship have been discussed, and we can say that the Misesian school of thought that postulates that the entrepreneur is defined by taking a risk and overcoming such risk. An entrepreneurial opportunity has to undergo the motivation assessment and the knowledge assessment to understand economic, personal and knowledge objectives can be met through the venture. Entrepreneurs make decisions based on incomplete information and. Therefore, there is a possibility of risk involved in all such decisions. The knowledge of the entrepreneur and heuristics developed through experience help the entrepreneur. While entrepreneurs are core domain experts, they have to be good managers to develop an organisation. Therefore, it is suggested that entrepreneurs adopt modern manpower approaches to engaging with employees and to ensure that the employees are trained and motivated to perform better.
Literature reports that roots are source of important compounds possessing pharmaceutical properties. So, we have oriented our work toward the transgenic root establishment of O. basilicum obtained from Agrobacterium rhizogenes, a natural bacterium of the soil responsible for the formation of the "hairy root". This genetic transformation was achieved from the leaves and segments of stems allowed to initiate of abundant roots, displaying the typical characteristics of the hairy root syndrome, as a rapid growth on solid and in liquid media without hormones. The root initiation seems to arise from the target cells near to the inner and outer phloem after mother plant infection. A bacterial inoculation at the central nervure level of the leaves led to an efficient and original protocol of transformation. Indeed numerous transgenic root clones, from Ocimum explants, could be obtained. Finally, the transformed state of the roots was confirmed by molecular analysis showing the obvious integration of the genes rol of A. rhizogenes responsible of the "hairy root" phenotype.
The various mechanical and wear properties of alloys and metals are investigated by acknowledging the heat treatment and various carburization processes. In this investigation, the mechanical and wear properties of mild steel carburized were studied at different ranges of temperature i.e. 800, 870 and 940 degree Celsius. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of carburization temperatures at different scales and conditions on mechanical and wear properties of carburized mild steel. The above different temperatures were tempered at 500 degree Celsius for half an hour and then subjected for different tests such as hardness test, tensile stress test, abrasive wear test and toughness test. The results after experimental work showed that mechanical and wear properties are improved and these properties increase with increase in the carburization temperature. It was analyzed from experimental calculations through proper investigations that the toughness property decreased with the increase in the carburization temperature. So, 940 degree Celsius is best suited for mechanical and wear properties of mild steel because it gives highest tensile strength, hardness and wear resistance. It can be concluded from the experimental results of the present study that hardness, tensile strength and wear resistance of the mild steels can be improved by a simple heat treatment of solid carburizing process.
Aluminosilicate (zeolites) were prepared from wheat straws. Physicochemical properties of zeolites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The examinations showed that the synthesized product was crystalline in nature and size obtain was 5µm. Adsorption characteristics of the pesticide deltamethrin was studied in aqueous solution through Ultra Fine Liquid Chromatography (UFLC). The adsorption results show that the modified zeolite was better as compare to unmodified zeolites.
Study of market centres as well as market economic functions in regional planning and development has been found very important in the assessment of the pattern of development of any region. This has attracted attention of the planners all over the world. The market related functions or activities with the level of concentration of services and facilities will help identification the development status of the region. This study attempts to examine the existing pattern of market economic development vis-à-vis development potential in different blocks of Purba Medinipur district of West Bengal. It has been observed that the functional and spatial organizations are interrelated phenomena which influence the economic and social life of the people. Through a systematic study spatial relationships among the existing market activities are observed and it has been noticed that there is a definite pattern of dispersal or concentration of activities in space. On the basis of the above understanding study has been conducted on the potential services of markets and related economic functions of Purba Medinipur district as an areal unit.
The potential of some amino acids (leucine, glutamic acid, isoleucine, aspartic acid and tryptophan) as emulsifiers in stabilizing some vegetable oils/water emulsions was investigated. The vegetable oils used for the study were Palm kennel oil, Melon oil, Sesame oil, Coconut oil and Groundnut oil. This was achieved by first forming homogenised emulsions of the oil/water and the time of phase separation was monitored. The amino acids were added to the emulsions and the mixtures homogenised and the phase separation time was studied. In all cases, there was increase in phase separation time, which is an indication of increase in stability. These amino acids can be used as emulsifiers in stabilizing oil/water emulsions.
This study was conducted on Idjwi Territory within the southern part of the Island covering Ntambuka Collectivity. It aimed, on the one hand, at studying the rate of schooled girls extending from 2009 to 2014 in primary schools. On the other hand, it sought to determine the declining causes of schooled girls and then to forward a proportion of remedial suggestions in order to increase the number of schoolgirls in that part of the island. On the basis of our genuine investigation, we have come up the following findings: the number of girls decreased systematically as they moved from one class into another. Moreover, the causes of this dwindle of schooled girls are basically due to teachers' immorality, precocious marriages, parents' retrograde culture and poverty, and negligence on behalf of the school girls themselves.
An inventory of the epilithic algae has been taken during 12 months (from January up to December 2012) according to a monthly sampling per site in the 12 streams of Lwiro region: Birunga, Gaho, Kaboneke, Kabindi, Kahenu, Kanakalwiro, Kalengo, Kamirihembe, Lwiro, Mahyuza, Tchoga and Tchongoloka. The epilithic algae has been scraped from 25 cm2 of upper part of the stones. The collected sample has been put in a test tube containing 50 ml of 4% formalin. After a thorough mixture of this sample, 1ml subsample has been taken for epilithic algae identification thanks to optical microscope. The results that we got throughout this study show that these watercourses are very rich in epilithic algae with a total of 64 identified species divided into 5 classes, namely Bacillariophyceae (45.3%), Chlorophyceae (21.9%), Cyanophyceae (15.6%), Desmidiaceae (10.9%) and Euglenophyceae (6.3%). The epilithic algae of Tchongoloka is the most diversified with 20 species and that of Kabindi is the less diversified with 11 species only. The high number of individual of algae is enregitred in Tchongoloka (264 individuals) and low number in Kalengo (235 individuals). The variations of species number correspond also with the variations of density, 660 individuals/cm2 for Tchongoloka and 542.5 individuals/cm2 for Mahyuza.
This paper is a report on epibenthic algae identified in water samples recovered from Kahuzi-Biega National Park streams. The samples were collected during dry season (July-August 2007) from 10 streams. Altogether, some 170 species with 9,872 individuals have been identified, belonging to 6 algal groups containing 61 genera. Bacillariophyceae with 3,550 individuals (61 species, 20 genera) formed the most abundant group followed by Cyanophyceae with 2,551 individuals (47 species, 12 genera) and Chlorophyceae with 1,685 individuals (30 species, 15 genera). This algal community is very diversified and balanced (Shannon-Weiner index varied between 4.44-4.67, Species Diversity between 15.81-13.31 and Equitability between 0.97-0.99). The higher number of species (114 species, 55 genera) was recorded at station MV and the lesser number (91 species, 51 genera) at station MG.
Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are widely employed as catalysts and semiconductors due to unique combination of crystalline and porous structure. The presence of polar and non-polar groups on organic linkers provides extra coordination sites for attachment of various metals. The topology of single and mixed organic ligands is tuned to higher surface area and increased porosity likely to serve as good adsorbents. The present study is based on synthesis of single and mixed ligand MOFs with Nickel as precursor. Oxalic and trimesic acid, representatives of di- and tri- carboxylates provides the organic framework. The characterization of synthesized MOFs by FTIR, XRD and SEM/EDX techniques reveal average crystallite size (0.2-3nm) and Ni is incorporated to mass percentage of 9-13%. Ni-O binding is exhibited at FTIR frequency of 493-500cm-1. The application of synthesized MOFs in batch experiment at varying adsorbent dose, concentration and temperature demonstrated adsorptive capacity for Polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the sequence dibenzofuran (81%) > phenanthrene (91%) > anthracene (33%). The adsorbents were also proven to be effective for removal of pollutants from industrial waste with average percent removal of 73% for incinerator ash. The study concluded that use of synthesized MOFs as an adsorbent for removal of pollutants is most effective way for environmental remediation. These MOFs can also be applied for catalysis of toxic environmental pollutants.
The effects of nickel additions on the change in microstructure of Zn-xNi lead free solder alloys were investigated. The investigation revealed that increasing Ni additions led to the increase in size of intermetallic Zn-Ni particles along with an increase in volume fraction of intermetallic particles. The microstructure also revealed the presence of the prominent delta (δ) phase in all three compositions of the solder alloy i.e. Zn-0.7 mass% Ni, Zn-1.0 mass% Ni and Zn-1.5 mass% Ni respectively. The presence of irregular shaped δ phase particles and conjoined δ phase particles were noticed in alloys with higher Ni content along with δ particles at grain boundaries. The most remarkable change occurred in the size of Zn grains, which decreased in size as Ni additions were increased. This reduction in size can be attributed to pinning effect of Zn grains by intermetallic particles.
Due to gradual exhaustion of mineral oil reserves and the problems of climate change, studying the possibilities that can be offered by biofuel in improving agriculture, can constitute a useful solution. Therefore, this article falls within the framework of technologies transfer with the purpose of exploring the different possibilities by which red palm oil can substitute diesel oil as a source of energy. Indeed, in the Moungo region of Cameroon, many palm oil extraction units are still processing palm nuts using diesel oil as a main source of energy. On the basis of the socioeconomic study held in the Moungo region of Cameroon, these palm oil extraction units are categorised according to different source of energy that is petrol, diesel oil, electricity and human energy. The mains processes through which palm nuts are being processed are described. These processes do not vary according to the sources of energy used and considering the different step involved in the process, the pressurization can be done using either manual press or motorized press. The analysis of the possibilities by which palm oil can substitute diesel oil as source of energy through comparison of cost of production according to the source of energy shows that all the extraction processes are efficient. However, expenses related to the supply of energy vary not only with the type but also with the quantity of source energy required by these presses In term of ranking, we found that the cheapest one is electricity followed by diesel oil, petrol and human energy in that last order. Substitution of diesel oil with palm oil is cheaper for presses consuming 0.5 litre of diesel oil per ton of palm nut processed while with a press requiring 1 or 1.5 litres of diesel oil per ton of palm nut, electricity represents the most efficient energy source followed by palm oil, diesel, petrol and human energy. Palm oil as a source of energy is therefore shown to be the most efficient followed by diesel oil, petrol and human energy in none electrified areas of palm oil production. In conclusion, our experiment suggests that it is possible to use palm oil as fuel in diesel engines. However, these engines should previously be adapted in order to avoid possible technical breakdowns. Beyond considerations of technological and economic feasibility, this study thus highlights the risk of competition between food use and energy conversation of some agricultural products, which could contribute to jeopardize food security in many contexts.
Activities of violent non-state actors like the Boko Haram sect in Nigeria have greatly affected the national security of the United States. The methods employed by non-state actors enable some groups to be able to take on much stronger entities by waging asymmetric warfare. For instance, "The hijacking of airplanes was common in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The seizing of embassies was popular in the late 1970s and early 1980s and the blowing up of mid-flight airplanes took center stage in the late 1980s. Other tactics include hostage taking, the assassination of prominent individuals and detonating bombs in government or public buildings. These methods have changed over time, but history has also shown that various non-state actors use different tactics no matter what the time period. The 9/11 attacks showed the deadly combination of a mid-air hijacking, suicide mission, and the targeting of public/government/military buildings. More importantly, it showed how a non-state group could adapt their tactics to defeat Western security apparatuses in order to carry out a massive strike. The second factor is communications technology. Innovations like the Internet and cell phones have enabled groups to communicate quickly and effectively. Because the diffusion of these two innovations is so vast, it presents a great challenge to Western security agencies, particularly if the group is operating in a weak or failed state. This study highlights the activities of the Boko Haram insurgency group, as a Violent Non-State Actor (VNSA) and its implications for the United States national security, and proposes a solution that may reduce the activities of the group.
It was a commonplace among traditional linguists and literary scholars that their disciplines were far apart from each other, and that there could be only very little interaction between them. In the late 20-th century, however, the fields of conventional linguistics and traditional literary studies were profoundly unsettled by major paradigm shifts like the decisive turn to text linguistics and discourse analysis, and new trends in literary theory (theoretical criticism). It is against the background of these shifts that the present paper investigates the relationship between modern linguistics (in the guise of text linguistics, discourse analysis, pragmatics, transformational-generative linguistics, semantics, etc.) and literary criticism, both theoretical and practical. By grappling with these two questions – 'Is there a common denominator between linguistics and literary criticism?' and 'Are literary texts fully amenable to a strictly linguistic analysis' -, this article traces the historical development of modern linguistics from conventional linguistics and of literary theory from traditional literary studies, while contrasting conventional linguistics and traditional literary studies, and comparing text linguistics/discourse analysis and literary theory. Ultimately, the paper establishes 'text', 'discourse' and 'language' as commonalities between linguistics and literary criticism, and takes the stance in favour of the irreducibility of literary texts to exclusively linguistic methods and techniques of analysis.