The study examined factors contributing to perseverance of poor solid waste management system in urban areas. specifically the study identified ways and tools used for proper solid waste management system, examined community awareness and attitude towards solid wastes management system and find out the existence of institutional and legal framework and how community comply with the existing laws/bylaws, rules and regulations towards solid waste management system. Both primary and secondary data were collected from a total of 108 respondents by using questionnaires and interview to obtain opinions and reactions persistence of poor solid waste management in urban areas of Tanzania. Findings revealed that negatively stance and perception of people concerning sanitation issues contributes to poor solid waste management in Tanzania. Preponderance of people has little idea on sanitation and most of households did not have rubbish bins. It is recommended that in absence of environmental education sold waste management will continue to be a problem.
This study proposes a new design concerning a parallel compliant vibrating mechanism for high precision production lines and enforces dynamic simulating analysis. The conventional mechanism for separating fine particles has based on advantages of spring to make vibrating motion to separate out various particles with radius ranges from 7 mm to 20 mm. But it also has a few defects such as additional weights of the springs, the wear between the kinematic joints. To overcome these limitations, this paper applies the conception of compliant mechanism to design novel model. First, using the principle of compliant mechanism, a parallel compliant vibrating mechanism is developed. The use of ANSYS, finite element analysis (FEA) is performed to explore the results of dynamic analysis concerning both angular velocity of mechanism and both angular acceleration and both equivalent stress and total deformation of compliant segments. The results show that a proposed mechanism can be used in high precision manipulators, actuators, and production line chain. Future work will conclude an investigation into the vibration frequency.
The term weed is used generally to unprofitable, troublesome or noxious growth and unwante plants in human controlled settings especially farms, fields and water bodies. Mechanical removal and weedicidal spray are common methods to eradicate weeds, but both these methods are not feasible. The disposal and decomposition of weed biomass is also a big problem. The present study deals with the use of weed biomass for the vermicomposting. Vermicompost of three common weeds of this area Parthenium hysterophorous, Lantana camara and Eichhornia cresipes was prepared as proposed by the Rajkhowa, et .al.(2005). The prepared vermicompost of all the three weeds was used as biofertilizer in soybean crop separately. The protein content was assessed at the regular interval of 15 days till 75 days, in all the vermicompost treatments. The study revealed that in all the three vermicompost treated soil protein content increased considerably over control. This clearly indicates that weed biomass can be utilized for vermicomposting, and the prepared vermicompost is beneficial for growing of crops.
Au cours de ces dernières années, de nombreux économistes ont posé le problème de l'existence d'une relation entre inégalité de revenu et état de santé. Ils ont examiné dans des études empiriques et ont commencé à proposer des applications de politiques. Cependant, de nombreuses ambiguïtés persistent et, par conséquent, personne ne sait comment cette relation fonctionne réellement. Dans ce cadre, ce se limitera à étudier sur ce qui est connu de nos jours, la relation entre inégalité de revenu et état de santé et offre des suggestions quant à la façon de produire davantage de santé. Le but de cet article est d'analyser le rapport entre la variable inégalité du revenu proxy par indice du Theil et amélioration de l'état de la santé proxy par la variable espérance de vie , en employant des techniques économétriques, données de panel durant la période 1990-2012. Notre échantillon est composé d'un groupe de 10 pays de la rive nord et sud de la Méditerranés, de la rive nord et sud Méditerranéennes, à savoir la Tunisie, l'Algérie, Maroc, Libye, Egypte, Franc, Italie, Grèce, Espagne, Slovénie. Les résultats confirment la preuve d'une relation significative et positive entre l'inégalité des revenus et amélioration de la santé de l'individu dans les pays de la rive nord de la Méditerranée et une relation significative mais négative dans les pays de la rive sud de la Méditerranée.
In this paper nine level Hybrid H- Bridge Multilevel inverter is analyzed for the various multi-carrier Pulse Width Modulation strategies. For the same nine level inverter output this particular topology has reduced count of switches, on comparing with the conventional Cascaded H Bridge Multilevel Inverter. For a single phase, nine level inverter output this topology requires one H-bridge and a half Bridge cell with Four equal voltage sources. Instead of sixteen controlled switches as in conventional method, this topology requires only twelve switches to obtain nine level output. The reductions in components count lowers, cost and complexities. Performance parameters have been analyzed for the nine level Hybrid H Bridge Multilevel inverter.
The information technology and communication have become an essential support for all activities of companies. They have emerged as a strategic asset in the service operations and management of the company. In this context, the key challenge for the company is to maximize its information system in order to make a major lever for achieving its objectives. However, companies face a lot of problems for the implementation of their information system. This is typically a notion of maturity that is required. In this article, we aim to study the maturity of projects and models most used in the literature, while providing a comparative study between the different models of maturity in project management.
In the Areas of two major cities of sindh viz Karachi and Hyderabad for the observation were carried out about the Burrows pattern, Holes (House made methods) of V.bengalensis (Monitor lizard) were studied in semi dry areas of the Karachi and Hyderabad (sites) It was observed that the burrows of V.bengalensis has showed much variation in their nature.Several type of habitat (burrows pattern) were studied in the different areas of Karachi and Hyderabad . It was noticed that the mostly size (Hole of mouth & length) of burrows of mature V.bengalensis was almost same in various observation of burrows in the selected studies area.
This work uses a method that enhances the performance of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP). The electrochemical properties of chloramphenicol at electrochemically pretreated glassy carbon electrode were studied using cyclic voltammeter (CV). Electrochemical pretreatment of the electrode greatly enhanced the reduction peak current (Ip) of CAP. CAP shows an irreversible reduction peak at -0.674 V vs. Ag/AgCl at the GCE in 0.05 M acetate buffer of pH 5. Detailed experiments were carried out to establish the electrochemical property, the optimal buffer and its pH, electrode pretreatment potential, scan rate dependence study and effect of concentration. Following optimization pH of buffer solution, the peak current response for the reduction of CAP shows an enhanced response, 2.0 times greater than the bare GCE. A series of four CAP determination in 1.6 x 10-6 to 2 x 10-4 M concentration range show a linear calibration curve with r = 0.99997. At this range the limit of detection was LOD = 2.45 ?M with a standard deviation of SD = 0.03814. The method was successfully applied to three CAP containing pharmaceutical samples: CAP eye drop, CAP palmitat oral suspension and CAP as sodium succinate and the level of CAP in these samples was verified.
There are many causes of WMSDs, and to prevent them, the whole work situation must be taken into consideration; it is therefore a difficult issue to handle. First, it is important to understand what is going on, to get rid of any biases, to find out the facts. Then, it is necessary to address and evaluate the seriousness of the situation prevailing in the workplace. If the situation is acceptable, it may be sufficient to simply remain alert and ready to intervene at the slightest sign of deterioration. If, however, it becomes obvious that the situation is problematic, either because there are already signs of identified. This project demonstrates that there is ample room for ergonomic improvements in the lock industry. We need to continue to identify problems and, more importantly, implement solutions to reduce the risk of injuries in situations where we know problems exist.
The study covers area, production and productivity of horticulture in India during the selected period of the study. The findings would help to understand the trends and set future course of action with regard to development of horticulture in India. In India, demand of horticultural crops and their export opportunities have been continuously increasing. It is felt that the significance of the crops which are becoming highly remunerative due to its price, especially horticultural crops. The study finds that the focus will be needed on the interstate variations of production of horticultural crops.
Although cloud computing is growing rapidly, a key challenge is to build confidence that the cloud can handle data securely. Data is migrated to the cloud after encryption. However, this data must be decrypted before carrying out any calculations; which can be considered as a security breach. Homomorphic encryption solved this problem by allowing different operations to be conducted on encrypted data and the result will come out encrypted as well. In this paper, we propose the application of Algebraic Homomorphic Encryption Scheme based on Fermat's Little Theorem on cloud computing for better security.
The Philippine Environment Policy (Presidential Decree No. 1151) has declared a continuing policy of the state (a) to create, develop, maintain and improve conditions under which man and nature can thrive in productive and enjoyable harmony with each other, (b) to fulfill the social, economic and other requirements of present and future generations of Filipinos, and (c) to insure the attainment of an environment quality that is conducive to a life of dignity and well-being. The respondents as faculty who were surveyed were moderately concerned about the environment. Majority of the respondents were generally concerned about the destruction of rainforest, the destruction of ozone layer, GM foods, the dumping of hazardous waste. They were least worried about the loss of wetlands, hunting, and nitrate pollution. Thus, the perception of faculty on environmental concerns and practices in four colleges of PIT, Palompon, Leyte as surveyed, the results were quite different from various surveys among the students. In the survey, the students were most concerned about the economy ranked as the first, then the environment, and the unemployment came next. In other words, the concern of the faculty on environment went beyond their personal experience.
Transmission lines are used for transportation of energy from the point of generation to the point of usage. A transmission line may be single-core conductor or stranded conductor. Stranding reduces line reactance, skin effect and the tendency of occurrence of corona effect. Transmission line parameters such as inductance and capacitance depend on the geometric mean radius (GMR) of the line. GMR is essential for Voltage and Voltage-Drop analysis which is necessary to ensure save operation of power system. Arithmetic and logical models of triangular, hexagonal, circular and sector shaped stranded conductors are presented. The models which accurately predict the Cartesian coordinates of centers of strands are coded into computer programs which facilitate both the accurate graphical drawing and accurate computation of GMR of stranded conductors.
Heavy metal concentration of crops (cocoyam and pawpaw) grown around Aneakie Obiakor Illegal Dumpsite, Awka was studied. Plants samples were collected from the waste dumpsite and control site during wet season, and analysed for level of concentration of 10 heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method (AAS). The result was compared with the control site and WHO/FAO standard. It was observed that all the heavy metals present in the plants were within WHO/FAO safe limit with the exception of Pb, Hg, As and Cd. The study revealed that the presence of solid wastes on agricultural soil results in heavy metal accumulation in soil and bioaccumulation in plants. The work therefore, recommended regular monitoring of metals in plants for prevention of excessive buildup of the metals in the food chain.
The article summarizes the racial conflicts in South Africa between the white and black population, apartheid structures, seasonal effects from the conflicts, and involvement of the United Nations in the racial issues. This paper is meant as a contributor towards the ongoing search for new means of managing ethnic conflicts in Africa. Using South Africa as a case study, it compares the management of ethnic and racial conflicts and shows the difficulties in managing deep-rooted and complex conflicts. The government of South Africa has taken bold constitutional steps to reduce tension, but the continuing ethnic and religious conflicts raise questions about the effectiveness of these mechanisms. The paper shows that ethnic conflict arose as a result of the denial of the basic human needs of access, identity, autonomy, security and equality, compounded by the autocratic roles played by the government and the military. Preservation of the ethnic peace is dependent upon the type and effectiveness of the available conflict management mechanisms and also the respective government's policy choices and decisions. For achieving a lasting peace, South Africa should challenge the actions of ethnic leaders who have used violent ethnic conflict for personal gain. The final conclusion of the paper is that ethnic conflicts are negative sum game in which there are no benefits for both sides.
The biosorption characteristics of Zn (II) ions were investigated. Experimental parameters affecting the biosorption process such as pH, contact time, biomass dosage, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to the adsorption data .The biosorption capacity for E. crasippes was found to be 16.50 mg g-1. The data was also subjected to pseudo-first-order and the pseudo-second-order kinetic models.
One of the important protection characteristics in online distributed generation is to identify the islanding operation. And in accordance with standards of Distribution network in power system, this identification must take in less Than 2 seconds. There are several Methods in Micro grids islanding detection. Islanding detection technique may generally be divided into remote and local techniques. In remote, The detection algorithm is on the grid side, in local the detection is on the DG side. Local Techniques consisting of active and passive and hybrid methods. Passive methods have been studied in This paper. The most commonly used passive islanding detection techniques are presented in This paper. This paper aims to compare these methods with their non-Detection zone and speed of detection. The comparison can help researchers determine the best method for their product.
One of the important protection characteristics in online distributed generation is to identify the islanding operation. And in accordance with standards of distribution network, this identification must take in less Than 2 seconds. A novel islanding detection method for an inverter-based distribution generation power system is proposed in this paper. The inverter-based distribution generation power system includes a dc power source and a grid-connected DC/AC inverter. The grid-connected DC/AC inverter acts as a virtual capacitor as the frequency is slightly lower than the fundamental frequency of utility voltage. Hence, the proposed method can immediately detect the islanding operation. This method is combination of previous methods therefore its operation is more suitable. The results of simulation done by MATLAB program, shows the suitable operation of this method well. It is observed that method is highly effective in islanding detection, including different islanding and non-islanding conditions in the initial test system and standard inverter-based distribution generation power system? with wide variations in operating parameters.
Couroupita guianensis is a highly valued species for the humans, soils management, environment and forestry. The tree is found some parts of India but now it is threatened species many areas of the country. Hence, there is an urgent need for conservation of this tree species. The present study was carried out in District Meerut for the period March 2014 to June 2014. The matured, seeds of C. guianensis were collected from Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden Shibpur, Howrah Kolkata, West Bengal. A total 50 seeds were sown in 5 pots containing soil, manure 3:1 ratio. The germination starts seven days after sowing in the month of March. Complete germination within 18 days during the end of March 2014.The total germination percentages were observed 95 % . Germination, seedling growth, number of leaves parameters were recorded at March to June (2014). The results indicate that the status of germination, saplings growth and development of C. guianensis is fairly rapid. I had recorded three months growth of C. guianensis tree species Mean 22.7 cm. after germination period in soil of Meerut district. It is concluded that the aim of the present study is to spread awareness towards the conservation and established of the threatened unique tree C. guianensis in Meerut district. The study benefited to environment and forest management in those areas, where the plant is now not found. The present study of the scope in the future various fields such as conservation of threatened tree species, adaptation tree species, pharmacology and environment management.
Phosphates are derived from a wide variety of sources including the atmosphere, agriculture, urban drainage domestic and industrial wastewater. Domestic and industrial wastewater such as from laundry and dry cleaning services release high concentration of phosphates through detergents used into the land and water environment. This work was aimed at studying the removal of phosphates from laundry wastewater using alum and ferrous sulphate as coagulants for treatment. Samples of wastewater were collected from two laundry companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. The physicochemical parameters measured were pH, total dissolved solids, total solids, total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), COD: BOD and phosphate removal. Using ferrous sulphate and aluminium sulphate as coagulants, the phosphates were precipitated from the waste water samples. The results obtained from locations A and B were pH (9.10 and 10.20), total solids (800.00 and 900.00 mg/l), total suspended solids (200 and 400 mg/l), total dissolved solids (600 and 500 mg/l), biochemical oxygen demand (276.70 and 134.00 mg/l), chemical oxygen demand (716.00 and 664.00 mg/l) and phosphate removal (26.0 and 30.0%) respectively. These results were compared with the Federal Environmental Protection Agency limits (FEPA, Nigeria) and found to be higher than the recommended standards. Thus, these results suggested adverse effects on the environment and impairment of the health of aquatic life where such waste water is being discharged. In conclusion, the use of alum in phosphates removal from laundry wastewater provided better results than ferrous sulphate.
Plato's The Allegory of the Cave, Book VII of The Republic and Pinter's The Room (1957) show not only much similarity but also fundamental differences. This paper analyzes the similarities between Rose, Pinter's character and the shackled prisoners in Plato's allegory. Both works have the same beginning and the same ending. In the two works Both Plato and Pinter share the existentialist point of view that man is a stranger in the world. In addition, both works are introducing the idea of art for truth's sake and consequently art for life's sake. The play has nearly the same plot structure of the Allegory and Rose, the protagonist of the play becomes "A Pinter's character in Plato's cave".
Regional clusters, the geographical bounded concentration of firms are the best environment for stimulating innovation and competitiveness of firms. This paper therefore underscores the limit or inhibiting factors of industrial cluster in geographical innovation, using the Lagos region as a case study. Primary data were collected through the administration of one hundred and three questionnaires, in the twelve industrial estates (total sampling). The paper has reveals tremendous cluster benefits in form of Transportation economies, Power economies, Raw material purchase/supply, Collaboration in research and development, labour economies, security, telecommunication economies, joint ports and Shipping as well as access to financial institution economies. Apparently, cluster can lead to unlimited and amazing technological development of a region, thereby facilitating diffusion and innovation creation. Despite the astounding advantages emanating from cluster development, the research has found out that its performance in economic development could be limited, hindered or inhibited. The paper further revealed, inadequate water supply and transportation, incessant power supply, research and development inadequacy, security, personal reasons, sales promotion, inaccessible financial institution as well as government policy as inhibiting factors which limit the role of clustering in facilitating crucial geographical innovation. It is therefore recommended that industrial cluster should be strengthened and encouraged through government investment in the industrial sector, making the location factors to be liberal, ensuring the adequacy of facilities in the industrial estates, giving tax holiday to younger investors, relaxing the laws governing the importation of some raw materials. This will have positive impact on productions and industrial expansion.
SnO2 (x)- ZnO(1-x) binary system with two different SnO2 composition (x= 3, 5 mol%) were prepared by solid state reaction at high temperature employed as photoanode for dye sensitized solar cell(DSSC) fabrication. SnO2-ZnO binary oxide was characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD) and UV-VIS Spectroscopy to examine their structure and optical properties. High performance carbon electrode was prepared onto glass and used as counter electrode. Coffee powder was used as natural dye-sensitizer. The improvement in device efficiency was achieved by larger SnO2 composition. The overall power conversion efficiency increased from 0.18% for SnO2:ZnO (3:97mol %) device to 0.26% for a device with SnO2:ZnO (5:95mol %) photoanode.
The proliferation of harmful algae in a marine environment is practically linked to human activities that are to be by overexploitation or pollution. Characteristics of the brown alga Sargassum muticum promote her ability to adapt and endure the harsh conditions in different parts of its distribution. This study indicates that the overexploitation of the red algae Gelidium sesquipedale causes an imbalance in the marine environment will be colonized by invasive alga S. muticum. Therefore, we must act quickly and rationally manage natural seaweed fields to avoid the invasion of the environment by harmful species.
This study aims to spot the inflation – generating expenses. The expenses items are represented by series of prices statistical indexes. We are going to determine the series of gaps on these prices indexes. We will afterwards study the data- generating process in the context of the ARCH model and the V-GARCH model. We will find out the following items (food, clothes and transports) as inflation- generating items.
Vegetation plays a significant role in determining ground and surface water of an area. The present study was aimed to investigate the impacts of exotic Eucalyptus plantation on the ground and surface water in district Malakand (34.50° N, 71.75° E) Pakistan. Two villages (Kot and Totai) were selected randomly for data collection with a sample size of 25% of the population representing each village. The methods used were questionnaire survey, interviews, water table and discharge rate measurement. The results of the study indicated that 64% springs have been dried out so far in village Kot and 75% in village Totai due to high uptake of water. Eucalyptus plantation has adverse effects on ground and surface water. It was found that Eucalyptus has deepened the water table by 0.762m (0.833 yards) per year in both villages as a result the average depth of water table has reached 20.116 m (22 yards) in village Totai and 15.544 m (17 yards) in village Kot. As a result, some springs have become seasonal depending on rainfall. Results of the current study suggest that ground water and surface water resources should be monitored regularly to determine the protection and regeneration of natural forests and better utilization and improvement of marginal and degraded lands. Moreover introduction of new plant species to an area should be made after careful observation of climatic conditions of the area and keeping in mind the possible effects of these species on the environment.
We will here study the stock market indexes, in the context of a random walk test with ARCH (q) disturbances. This model based on these theoretical predictions has been valuated from the Tunis Stock market data. The coherence of the parameters signs and the statistical relevance of the estimations are validating the choice of the conditionally heteroskedastic random walk model.
The study was aimed to document the suitability of Eucalyptus for Malakand (34.50° N, 71.75° E) social forestry project. The project was started in February 1987 with the aim to improve life style of villagers by improving the yield and use of the hillsides, and marginal lands. The methodology used was questionnaire survey; point count and line transect method. It was found that the project has not yet achieved its objectives and caused economical, ecological, and social problems in the project area. The revenue generated from Eucalyptus plantation remains in few hands of the community. It was found out that project is not socially acceptable, ecologically viable and economically feasible. The poor are suffering more as they are more dependent on the natural resources that are water and soil. The results showed that wheat production has been reduced from 1350 to 1100 kg per hectare. The results indicated that birds prefer native species (Ziziphus mauritiana 26% and Acacia nilotica 14.6%) over Eucalyptus (2.6%) for nesting. As a result Eucalyptus supports less bird's diversity as compared with native species. Many species of birds, cattle and other wild animals are suffering because of their dependency on water and soil. Government has to look for sustainable and environment friendly alternatives. Moreover introduction of new plant species to an area should be made after careful examination of hydrological and geological conditions of the area by keeping in mind the possible impacts on environment.
Reports of many functional deficiencies are these days rampant in many aluminium products flooding the Nigeria markets. These emanate from the local aluminium manufacturing, cottage foundry industries and much more from goods imported in the country. The study investigates the metallurgical properties of as-received and cast aluminium alloy samples used in the floating piston/calliper of the automobile hydraulic master brake cylinder. Commercially available aluminium alloy is procured from which callipers were cast and characterised. The study compares the physical properties by Hardness test, microstructural properties using high resolution metallurgical microscope, X-Ray Diffraction, chemical composition using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The as-received samples are characterised by poor metallurgical qualities such as variation in weight and density, low HBN, low tensile strength, high porosity and sand inclusions from the previous poor casting practices, hence abnormalities result under usage. The aluminium alloy was technically cast at pouring temperature higher than 750 oC using sand mould of high permeability. The casting gave higher HBN values of eutectic-AlSi structured aluminium alloy. The tensile strength calculated as approximate relationship between the hardness and the tensile strength, gave lower 329.09 Mpa and 154.78 Mpa strength for as-received samples as compared with the cast alloy having 353.58 Mpa and 226.49 Mpa tensile strength values respectively.
Cathodic protection is still one of most useful methods of corrosion control applicable to metal surfaces. Copper is often applied on steels for its good adhesion and improved appearance. Organic additives to plating baths improve the throwing power, levelling and brightening of the film. Hence the effects of surface polishing grit and Saccharin-550 additive on copper plating of steels were studied. Two standard NST60Mn and NST50-2 steels were electroplated in acid-sulphate bath using saccharin-550 as additive. Copper film thickness reduces as surface polishing grit increased with or without additive. The film properties improve as the substrate surface improves, with the most stable, metallic, lustre and adhesion obtained on 400µm and 600µm finishes without additive. Increasing saccharin-550 concentration from 0.1g/l to 0.5g/l improved film quality. Lower 0.1g/l saccharin-550 concentration produced higher thickness but poor brightening. Optimum plating parameters were obtained at 2V, 200g/l CuSO4.H2O, 600µm SFG and 0.5g/l saccharin. The density of copper plates is increased while porosity is reduced. The coat becomes more tenacious and protective in nature, and deposited in form of metal sheet rather than the powdery form. Types of steel do not control Cu-deposition but rather the polishing grade of steel surface.