The Lobo River reservoir, the main source of drinking water supply for the municipality of Daloa, is facing a deterioration in its quality. This study aims to assess the quality of this resource. The physico-chemical and chemical parameters of this water were determined during the two seasons of the year 2020. The methodological approach consisted firstly of characterizing the water in the reservoir in relation to the WHO guide values; secondly, determining the phenomena that govern the mineralization of this water and, thirdly, calculating the organic pollution index (OPI) and the water quality index (WQI) of the reservoir. The results show that the physico-chemical parameters (T, pH and EC) comply with the WHO guide values. However, the water has a high turbidity, with a very strong colour in all seasons. Phosphate (0.93 mg/L), ammonium (1.48 mg/L), total iron (2.99 mg/L) and manganese (0.66 mg/L) concentrations are high. On the other hand, chlorides, nitrates and nitrites remain low in both seasons. On the other hand, chlorides, nitrates and nitrites remain low in both seasons. Normalized Principal Component Analysis (NPCA) revealed that the mineralization of this water is of natural and anthropogenic origin. The water quality (2.25 to 3.25) and organic pollution (429.73 to 693.31) indices show that the water in the reservoir is unfit for consumption, with moderate pollution in the dry season and heavy pollution in the rainy season.
The literature on sexual behavior, including its characteristics, explanatory factors and consequences, is very abundant. Unfortunately, little or no work addresses the life courses and the influence of cultural and socioeconomic heritage patterns in which sexual activity occurs at the beginning of women's fertile lives. This article examines the sexual behavior of adolescent girls between 2006 and 2018 in Benin through the lens of capabilities. Data from the last three (03) Benin Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 2006 and 2018 were used to identify factors associated with early sexuality among adolescent girls in Benin.The variable explained was first early sexual intercourse. The discrete-time logistic regression method used led to the results that, taking into account the effect of duration and timing variables, the factors associated with early sexual debut in adolescence are residence in the departments of Atacora/Donga and Alibori/Borgou; low level of schooling or lack of schooling; and membership in a religion of Muslim and Christian persuasion. Taking into account the standard of living of the households and the activity carried out by the adolescents, it is noted that adolescents living in an environment of average standard of living have significantly different sexual behaviors from other adolescents in recent years. The risk of early sexual debut is greater in this social group, all other things being equal. Social position, educational background, and cultural identity are among the factors that influence adolescents' ability to manage their own sexuality.
This paper proposes a revised Lambda-Gamma algorithm applied to the solution of a short-term hydrothermal planning problem. It is a Lambda-Gamma algorithm, which, in addition to the Newton-Raphson method for solving the coordination equations, also specifies the direction of adjustment of the Lambda and Gamma parameters according to the convergence conditions. This gives it the particularity of being more explicit, detailed and easy to implement. Next, the performance of this revised algorithm is compared with that of the Newton-Raphson Approximate algorithm for hydrothermal planning. From this comparison, it is found that the proposed algorithm outperforms and is more robust than the approximate Newton-Raphson algorithm given its convergence to a global minimum even when the practical constraints of generator power limits are taken into account. In addition, the conformity of the results obtained with those of the literature, allowed to validate the algorithm.
The nutritional status of students of school age and adolescents is of great concern to any country. This study aimed to assess the eating habits and nutritional status of students aged 5 to 18 from urban households of the district communal 1 of Niamey. 300 households in six districts were surveyed, 97% of the heads of households were men, 87% of these heads were monogamous. Each head of household had an average of 10 people in charge. Among the 623 students surveyed, 55% are boys against 45% girls, the majority (65%) were in primary school, 63% in public schools. Students in the 10-14 age group (48%) were the most abundant. The nutritional status of the students was evaluated according to 2006 WHO standards. Thus, it came out with the proportion of 2.56% overweight, 1.44% obesity all grades combined. Also, the coexistence of underweight (9.30%) with a proportion of 15.97% of growth retardation 66% of wasting according and emaciation to BMI and MUAC. On the other hand, the proportion of acute malnutrition according to the weight-for-height index (22.2%) as well as underweight only concerned the age group of 5 to 9 years. The extracurricular sport was rarely practiced by the students (27%). The dietary diversity score was assessed according to FAO references. Eating habits varied and diverse for 74% of the students and the most consumed food groups were cereals (99%), then fruits (97.7%). Although, strongly correlated with the socioeconomic level of the parents.