The reservoirs of the province of Salta is characterized by its high level of hypertrophy. Monitoring phytoplankton, would enable prevention and control of water quality. We studied the phytoplankton abundance and structure of three reservoirs in the province: Cabra Corral and El Tunal belonging to the upper basin of Juramento and Campo Alegre of the Bermejo's system during a hydrologic cycle (2007-2009). Sites were considered for the areas of greatest influence lotic and the central deeper. In the reservoirs of the upper basin of the Juramento, species diversity decreased during the dry season because of the greater stability in the water column, unlike the phytoplankton density, which tended to be higher. In these reservoirs highlighted the persistence of Cryptophyta. Dinophyta with Ceratium hirundinella as the dominant species, occurred in the three reservoirs in both periods of the hydrologic cycle, in Campo Alegre, was dominant throughout the sample, leading to the lowest values of diversity, richness and evenness. The principal component analysis showed clustering between the sampling sites of each reservoir Campo Alegre differentiating the rest.
The aim of this article is to describe the proposal for an agile methodology focused on user requirements and its implementation in the System of Integral Administration of Human Resources (SAIRH). This methodology consists of a pre-phase of requirements that can be implemented to an agile methodology, in addition to a cycle for change requests that is incorporated into the cycle of the methodology used, the pre-phase consists of 5 stages: collection, analysis, prototyping, negotiation and the initial requirements report. The change request cycle includes 4 stages: change request, analysis, negotiation, adding the change to the requirements report. The implementation is carried out in the SAIRH where the XP methodology with MVC is used and both the pre-phase of requirements and the change request cycle are included, at the end of this work the impact that the use of this methodology has on the development time of the system is analyzed.
The implementation of the automatic aquaponic system is projected as an innovative and sustainable project to be disseminated nationwide. Innovating the way in which our food is harvested, hoping to achieve a positive impact on the care of natural resources, achieving a 60% reduction in water consumption in agricultural activities thanks to our recirculation system and, on the other hand, eliminating 90% of the chemical fertilizers and 50% pesticides reducing the number of population that contracts diseases from the use of these chemicals in the conventional production of vegetables, hoping to have a good acceptance by the population, so that year after year more people use this system raising awareness of the importance of caring for and taking advantage of vital resources for human life. Being a project with many expectations that depend on the acceptance of the population, since it implies a radical change in the method of food production, which implies the substitution of conventional agriculture that is a source of work for many Mexicans so it would be impossible for everyone to make the transition from the conventional method to new innovative techniques such as the aquaponics system. On the other hand, the lack of economic resources is one of the main limitations since the infrastructure needed to achieve an impact requires a large initial investment.
Jean Lorougnon Guédé University (UJLoG) has a large site of about 400 hectares. The floristic diversity specially the richness of melliferous plants remain currently unknown. This is not helpful for modern beekeeping project on this area. This study was carried out to evaluate the potentially melliferous flora of this environment in order to promote beekeeping. Then, botanical surveys were carried out in all the university site and the resulting floristic list was compared to the three lists of known melliferous plants in Cote d’Ivoire. The results showed that 120 potentially melliferous species including 105 genera and 45 families were recorded. Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae were the most diversified families. In addition, woody species (59%) were more abundant than herbaceous ones (41%). They are specially foraged for both nectar and pollen. As such, the flora of UJLoG site presents enormous melliferous potentialities that can support the practice of beekeeping. This flora needs an appropriate precaution.
Learning cannot be complete without experiential learning, which is also the case for ecological Learning. In primary schools this is conducted through several programs including courses related to the field, textbooks, and teachers’ guidance. In order to deduce and prove if this learning brings good results, our approach is based on making direct contact with the teachers and the parents of students of the 5th and 6th grade to learn about theecological activities applied in their schools and homes.At the end of this experimentation/ study, we have realized that the students are aware of the protection of the environment, however, their daily behaviors sometimes do not reflect that. In spite of this collective awareness of teachers, parents and students, the result is unsatisfactory.
The rational management of natural biological resources such as non-timber forest products can be an asset in the fight against poverty and the protection of the environment. Goimbrasia hecate is a Lepidoptera whose caterpillars are edible in some Sahelian areas of Mali. The objectives of the study are: 1) to identify the host plants of G. hecate; 2) to determine the food preference of the caterpillars; 3) to identify the host plants chosen as oviposition site. The inventory of woody plants was carried out in demarcated areas. Then the different stages of development of G. hecate or the traces left by the insect were searched for the leaves and around the feet of woody plants. Of the 12 species of woody plants encountered, the most widespread is Guiera senegalensis. The range of host plants consists of G. senegalensis, Combretum glutinosum, Combretum micranthum, Terminalia macroptera, Piliostigma reticulatum, Sclerocarya birrea, Diospiros mespiliformis and Mytragyna inermis. G. hecate is therefore polyphagous but prefers the most widespread species in the area. Females chose G. senegalensis, C. glutinosum and P. reticulatum as oviposition sites. The average number of eggs per ooplaque is highest on C. glutinosum leaves. Stage 4 and 5 caterpillars prefer G. senegalensis and P. reticulatum. These data are necessary for the sustainable management of the insect.
Locating a suitable solid waste disposal site has been a major problem in the municipal environment in developing countries. Especially, urban solid waste management system needs solid waste management technique. Several, countries like Bangladesh are struggling to establish proper waste management systems in the context of increasing population, urbanization, and industrialization. The main objective of this study was to select potential areas for suitable solid waste dumping sites, which are environmentally suitable. This study were Landsat images; digital elevation model (DEM) and ground control point collected by GPS and topographical map of the study area. The maps were prepared by overlay and suitability analysis of GIS, Rs and MCA methods. Relative importance weight of each criterion in the GIS and AHP was determined and finally the suitability map was prepared. A probability map was created based on field observations and the final suitability map, appropriate solid waste landfill site. Therefore, government, private and other organizations are using these techniques for development planning and implementation at every sector. These findings may provide policymakers with crucial information for better solid waste management policy development, which Government, private and other organizations are using these techniques for development planning and implementation at every sector.
The gray clays of the Eboinda region consist of sub-rounded, fine to medium and translucent grains. A few black nodules 1 to 2 cm, sub-rounded, give off a hydrogen sulfide odor. They are strongly impregnated with bitumen. this unit yielded a rich assemblage of spores and pollen to the Cretaceous/Paleogen transition (K/Pg) namely, Longapertites marginatus, Mauritiidites crassibaculatus, Proxaperites cursus, Proxapertites operculatus, Longapertites proxapertitoids, Deltoidospora minor, Cyathidites minor, Zlivisporites blanensis, Retistephanocolpites williamsi, Spinizonocolpites baculatus. Mangrove-type paleovegetation developed in Upper Maastrichtian and in Danien. From the paleoclimatic point of view, the development of pollen mainly palms belonging to the family of Aceraceae suggests tropical and humid climatic conditions, which alternate with a warm and dry climate (development of Ephedripites sp.,) in the Upper Maastrichtian. The presence of some species of the Cytheaceae and Arecaceae family would indicate a tropical and humid climate in Danien. But the complete disappearance of the Proteaceae and Ephedraceae, indicates a cold climate at the Cretaceous-Paleogene limit.
This study deals with the morphological features and diet of the frog Hoplobatrachus occipitalis in Benin. Specimens were caught in the River basins of Ouémé, Mono and Niger using the light fishing technique. Morphometric data were taken on 180 individuals while diet data were collected on 90 specimens per hydrographic basin. The mean values of individual weight, total length and snout-cloaca length of H. occipitalis in the Niger River basin are significantly lower compared to the other two basins (p<0.05) where the values of the three parameters are statistically similar (p>0.05). Compared to males, females displayed higher values of these parameters and most of the differences are significant in the Ouémé and Mono River basins (p<0.05). The overall emptiness index is 29.9%, the highest and lowest values being obtained in the Niger River basin (43.3 ± 2.4%) and Ouémé River basin (13.6 ± 2.5%), respectively (p<0.05). The diversity of prey in the stomachs of frogs from the Niger River basin (Insects, plant debris and grains of sand) is low compared to the Ouémé River basin (Insects, plant debris, Arachnids, Molluscs, Fish and grains of sand) and the Mono basin (Insects, plant debris, Fish and grains of sand). Insects are the most frequent, the most numerically abundant and the most weight-representative in the three River basins. They are the main food in the diet of H. occipitalis in the Ouémé and Niger River basins while in the Mono River basin, they are with the plant debris of secondary foods. All other prey encountered are incidental in the diet of H. occipitalis. These biological data are useful for the breeding of H. occipitalis in Benin.
The objective of this research was to quantify and identify pathogenic bacteria in the wastewater of Lake Kivu and the Ruzizi River, downstream of wild dumps. Bacteria samples were taken using the 250 ml sterile plastic vials. Indeed, the whole forearm is immersed in water with the vial, open at a depth of 25 to 30 cm and it is hermetically sealed inside the water itself. The samples were transported at low temperatures in a cooler containing ice blocks to the laboratory for possible analysis. Microbiological analyses were done at the LPVMA/UOB. To arrive at a possible count of the number of colonies of bacteria, the process of the dilution technique of the samples because it allows us to reduce the bacterial flora in a sample. For each site, we inoculated on three Petri dishes according to the number of dilutions (from 100 to 10-3). All Petri dishes are incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The number of colonies was found on the surface of all three plates averaged and expressed in colony-forming units (CFU) per ml of water. Plating on the specific media was done in test tubes using a platinum loop. The results of our analyses showed that the max/min shift of the values of variables of the physicochemical parameters according to the sampling sites did not exceed the interval of one unit: salinity (0.06-0.5), temperature (24.25-25.4°C), pH (8.5-9), dissolved O2 (57.2 - 59.8 mg/L.10-1). Regarding to the variation of CFU on the different culture media used, the analyses revealed us that the number of colonies varies according to the type of culture media, which constitutes a danger of the community health of the urban population. The studies on these bacteria resistance according to the most commonly used antibiotics are capital for a better support to the public health. It is on PCA and PA where we found the most colonies than on ECA where the CFUs are the lowest. Asignificant difference was observed between the CFU detected inthe waters of Mushununu and those detected in the waters of the Ruzizi I dam (p = 0.005), those detected in the waters from Hewa Bora and those from ELAKAT (p = 0.03) and those from Honga and ELAKAT (p = 0.041). A spatial distribution of detected genera of potentially pathogenic bacteria; including Salmonella sp, Escherichia sp, Sphingomonas sp, Pseudomonas sp, Klebsiella sp, Moraxella sp, Vibrio sp, Citrobacter sp, Enterobacter sp, and Serratia sp was observed.