The decoction of Morinda lucida leaves is used by ivorian traditional healers in the treatment of inflammation. This study seeks the scientific foundations of this practice. It evaluates the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts from Morinda lucida leaves and then performs phytochemical screening to indicate the chemical groups responsible for the activity. In relation to the anti-inflammatory activity, the results obtained with Morinda lucida were compared to those of physiological control (NaCl 0.9%) and the diclofenac sodium 25 mg/kg. The parameter considered for this purpose is the percentage increase in paw circumference (%AUG). These results showed at p<0.001 a significant difference between the %AUG of phytomedicine treatment at different doses and those of NaCl. However, at the dose of 7350 mg/kg administered orally, the %AUG of the phytomedicine are statically the same as those of diclofenac 25 mg/kg. This section reveals that the aqueous extracts of the leaves of Morinda lucida have anti-inflammatory properties. Concerning the tri-phytochemical tests, the results indicated that the leaves of Morinda lucida contains: alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, sterols and polyterpenes. These chemical groups could justify the anti-inflammatory activity of the plant.