An Automotive Yard stores a big number of vehicles that stay in the site for different intervals of time (days, weeks or months), requering preventive maintenance during their stay. Through Internet of Things Sensors, the battery voltage of each vehicle is recorded every day generating a large data transformed into time series to analyze it. Classification and Clustering Algorithms based on K-Nearest Neighbors were developed using scikit-learn tool, for the extraction of knowledge from the IoT Data, specifically battery voltaje behavior patterns according to certain vehicle models. The performance of the algorithms was obtained making a comparison between them. The information founded will be of help for the planning of preventive maintenance carried out in the logistics processes of the automotive yard, minimizing the replacement of batteries and along with this the economic and ecological cost.
Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a recent algorithm used for solving optimization problems and is the model on the behavior of real ant colonies. It has been used exclusively for solving problems in the combinatorial optimization domain. Traveling salesman problem (TSP) is one of the well-known and extensively studied problems in combinational optimization and used to find the shortest roundtrip of minimal total cost visiting each given city (node) exactly once and it can be applied to solve many practical problems in real life. ACO is a good search capability and a high-performance computing method for TSP. But, the traditional ACO has many drawbacks such as stagnation behavior, trapping in local optimal and premature convergence. This paper implements and evaluates a specialized version of ant colony optimization capable of searching in travelling salesman problems and evaluates its performance under a range of conditions and test cases. The proposed system is an improved ant colony optimization algorithm with dynamic candidate set strategy is adopted to rapid convergence speed and adapting parameter to improve the performance in solving TSP. Algorithms are tested on benchmark problems from TSPLIB and test results are presented. From our experiments, the algorithm has better performance on TSP and analysis results are presented.
The aim of this work is to compare the local Suess effect in Dakar region to the global one during 20th century using tree leaves. Therefore, Δ14C have been measured to give the variability in time. The curve obtained from this study compared to the global one used as reference is lower. The peak of curve for this study is 773‰ in 1964 where the one obtained in the same time by Nydal and Lovesth (1996) in Dakar is 800‰. These differences values are due to the local Suess effect corresponding to the emission of fossil fuel (CO2ff) in the atmosphere. Fossil CO2 (CO2foss) is the major contributor of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere. In order to quantify these emissions the mass balance equations has been used allowing us to investigate the variability of the emissions. These analysis shows that CO2foss decreases in wooded areas and increases in non-wooded areas, i.e. in more industrialized areas.
Lianas play an important role in several aspects of forest dynamics. This study aims to (1) compare the spatial distribution of woody species between invaded and non-invaded areas by Sericostachy scandens and (2) assess the effect of the density of adult trees of a given species and woody regeneration and young tree stages of other species on the recruitment of the target woody species in both invaded and non-invaded areas by S. scandens within Kibira National Park (KNP) in Burundi. The abundance of woody species (regeneration, young trees, adult trees) was measured in 100 plots of 50 m × 50 m each, evenly distributed in the invaded areas and the non-invaded ones. The analysis of the spatial distribution of woody species was carried out through the computation of the Green index. A multiple regression was performed to test the effect of conspecific adults trees density and the average density of heterospecific woody regeneration and young tree on recruitment of woody species. The Green index values showed that all woody species had a random spatial distribution, regardless of S. scandens invasion. Overall, the density conspecific adults’ trees have a positive or insignificant effect on regenerations and young trees in both invaded and non-invaded areas. New studies focused on the influence of abiotic and biotic factors of the areas are essential for a thorough understanding of the distribution of KNP woody species and the mechanisms of their coexistence.
Uvariopsis tripetala (Baker f.) G. E. Schatz is a multipurpose aromatic plant listed as a vulnerable species by IUCN. It is threatened with extinction in Benin and its importance for local populations remains poorly documented. The purpose of this study is to analyze the traditional knowledge of local populations and the determinants of the use of U. tripetala in order to develop conservation and sustainable management strategies. To achieve this, 255 respondents, randomly selected from 5 socio-cultural groups (Adja, Fon, Holli, Mahi and Nagot) were interviewed through semi-structured ethnobotanical survey. Citation frequencies and ethnobotanical parameters (indices of diversity and equitability of the respondent, the consensual value of the types of use and the ethnobotanical value of use of an organ) were calculated. Factorial Correspondence Analysis was performed from a designed matrix. The results reveal that local populations have knowledge in the usage categories of food, magic, medicine, worship, household energy, oral and dental hygiene. In total, 24 uses have been identified and classified into 8 categories, the most cited of which are worship, medicinal and food uses. The most solicited organs are the stems for worship, the leaves for traditional medicine and the fruits for food purpose. Ethnic group, sex, age and instruction level are the factors that significantly influence the knowledge of U. tripetala uses. The rational use of the various plant organs and the sensitization of populations on the proper methods of cutting its stem could help to improve the sustainable management status of this species.
Aerosols PM2.5, SO2 and CO were studied within the Federal Capital Territory of Nigeria (F.C.T Abuja), the area comprises of 6 (six) councils “AMAC, Abaji, Bwari, Kuje, Kwali and Gwagwalada”. The study covered a period of one year (2017-2018), irrespective of the seasonal variation of the study area, the impacts of aerosols on incident solar energy for the period was observed. The National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) uses the atmospheric satellites (AS) data of within an altitude 6 Km from the ground level. The data came in NETCDF format, which was extracted by a specialized software called the Arc Map 10.4.1, converted and exported in DBF format which can be read by Microsoft excel. The study shows that the human population in F.C.T increased with (r= 2.6 ±1) months per year which negatively affect the aerosol concentrations and the seasonal impact analysis conform to adiabatic process with respect to the atmospheric variables, as the concentrations were found to be higher in dry than in wet season. Also the Solar radiation impact study reveals a change within solar insolation range of 5.5-6.5 Kwh/m2/day(CO), 2.8-4.5 Kwh/m2/day (SO2) and 4.0-6.5 Kwh/m2/day (PM2.5) and a percentage decrease of 8.42 %, 29.50 %, and 2.87 % was recorded respectively. Which implies a relative impact of solar energy on aerosol (i.e. higher intensity solar energy also reduces a small fraction of the atmospheric aerosol) and vice-versa.
Burkina Faso has 14% of its territory covered by classified forests. The state ensures an increasingly participative management. However, the trend of degradation and deforestation continues and these classified forests play little part in the fight against poverty. A joint diagnosis made it possible to measure the ardent need of local populations to be more involved, which could lead to real ownership. The paper investigated the strengths and weaknesses of empowering forest management involving local people. After a literature review, the study conducted individual surveys and focus group interviews with local populations, technical agents, and forest management groups (FMGs), customary authorities and local elected officials. The empowerment of management for the benefit of local people can be based on various contracts between the state and the private sector and / or communities. FMGs do not report to local people and seem to be the only local beneficiaries of this centralized state management. In order to put an end to this trend of degradation and to make local people benefit from their forests, an involvement towards empowerment is essential, especially in this context of climate change.
Climatic hazards, known as anthropic issues, are permanent threat to agriculture. Thus, beside the observed new climatic conditions, several agricultural practices are being developed. This study is led in order to characterize and understand better the determinants of such the agricultural practices. Data collected from 280 maize cultivators in Northern Benin have been used to do a Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) and logit models were specified. The results revealed that the perception of both the emergence of new grass species, insect pests, late starting of rains and rising temperatures influences positively the producers who, for adaptation, increase the dose of chemicals and opt for extending agriculture and adopt new varieties of seed. But, it influences negatively adopters of agroforestry and adopters of none chemical agricultural practices. Concerning the perception of the early arrival of rains, it influences positively the adoption of agricultural practices, which are likely to increase the ecological vulnerability of the producer in face of climatic hazards. Furthermore, the experience of the producer and the Access to extension service, increase the chance of adoption of ecologically unsustainable agricultural practices.
The eradication of parasitic diseases transmitted by vectors such as the malaria carrying mosquito depends partly on vector control which requires the knowledge of their development conditions in space and time. As a contribution, this study aims to determine geographically the environmental and anthropogenic driving factors that contribute to the development of mosquitoes in Chiépo sub-prefecture located in the forested area of Côte d'Ivoire. The study focuses on characterizing the spatial dynamics of mosquito breeding sites, analyzing population’s behavior and socio-economic activities in the study area. To achieve this, geospatial data collection based on GIS techniques have been coupled with entomological methods of culicidal fauna prospection. The results of the investigations show that natural ecosystems, populations’ behavior, lifestyle and poor prophylactic knowledge, coupled with the type of socio-economic activities, contribute to the development of mosquitoes by providing them with breeding sites, rest shelter and availability of their blood meals at short-distance. Breeding sites are mainly permanent (42.9 %) and temporary (37.4 %). They contain three genera of mosquito larvae predominantly Culex (47 %) which is present in 80 % of the localities of the study area. High larval density localities are Chiépo (Anopheles and Aedes), CFI and Guiguidou (Culex).
This study was carried out to determine the optimum nitrogen and phosphorus rates for achieving optimum yields and nutrient use efficiency for wheat in highlands of Eastern Uganda. An on station randomized complete block design experiment was conducted at Buginyanya Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute. Two varieties Fahari and Pasa were treated with four levels of nitrogen (0, 30, 60, & 90 kg ha-1) and three levels of phosphorus (0, 7.5 &15 kg ha-1). The fertilizer treatments were each replicated three times. The highest grain yield of Pasa and Fahari was 3211kg ha-1, 2726 kg ha-1 respectively obtained at a nutrient combination of 60 kg N ha-1 and 15 P kg ha-1. The same nutrient combination resulted into highest number of tillers: (Pasa 4 and Fahari 5), kernel per spike of 40 for Pasa and 32 for Fahari. Maximum total kernel weight, spike length and plant height were obtained at 90 kg N ha-1 and 7.5 kg P ha-1 nutrient combinations. Pasa produced a significantly higher Agronomic Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Agronomic Phosphorus Use Efficiency obtained at 30 kg N ha-1 and 7.5 kg P ha-1 nutrient combinations, compared to Fahari at the same N and P rates. Optimum N and P fertilizer combination for best grain yield of both wheat varieties tested is 60 kg N ha-1 and 15 kg P ha-1 combinations.
The agro-pastoral zone of central Benin is marked by the scarcity of watering points and the degradation of pastures. The use of agropastoral resources leads to conflicts between farmers and pastoralists. The present article on the management of agro-pastoral conflicts in the Benin center, aims to studying the modes of management of agropastoral conflicts by the protagonists. Specifically, it is a question of determining the causes of the conflicts between farmers and herders, to make the typology of the conflicts of use of the agropastoral resources, and to determine their modes of regulation by the different actors. The methodological approach adopted consisted of a field survey, and an analysis of the different conflicts and their method of settlement. The data processing revealed five types of conflict and two modes of dispute resolution according to the protagonists.