In general, the history of microfinance is very diversified from one continent to another and from one country to another. It is therefore difficult to define precise phases or stages in the evolution or structuring of the new modern market of these solidarity microcredit. The history of the soft sector leads to the study of the informal economy, bartering, pawning ... which were once reliable and successful techniques enabling the poor to survive and simultaneously and to be able to participate in economic growth. In this paper we are interested in answering this question; Why measure the impacts of microfinance? This paper aims to test this assertion. Based on a literature review applied to a sample of developed and emerging countries, we highlight that the shift to this credit system and whether it coincides with improved growth rates and higher macroeconomic stability.
This study proposed to evaluate the level of the school assets in French and mathematics of the pupils of 6th year primary educations of the catholic agreed schools of the town of Kisangani, and to seek to it (them) characteristic (s) being able to predict their results.
On a population of 5727 schoolboys of 6th year registered in 41 catholic primary schools of the town of Kisangani, during the school year 2009-2010, we retained 372 schoolboys, drawn in a random way in 12 schools. We used descriptive method.
With the exit of this investigation, the pupils of sixth year of the catholic schools of the town of Kisangani, obtained results lower than the criteria required by UNESCO, that of 70%, the proof French (except 5 schools) and of mathematics (no school). And as regards the characteristics, only the characteristics of the teachers appeared predictors of the results of the pupils in mathematics.
Like consequence, we must drawn much attention in the training of teachers, because it training level of a teacher makes possible to predict the results of his pupils.
Galloping and anarchic anthropization is degrading more and more the fresh water resources available on the surface. The general objective of the study is to determine the ecology of Uronema elongatum of the current freshwater of the Littoral Region, Cameroon in order to propose its use as a biological indicator of the quality of the rivers of this Region. The specific objectives are: (1) to make a floristic inventory of the algae of some rivers of the Littoral region and to describe the morphology of the species Uronema elongatum; (2) to measure physicochemical parameters associated with these rivers; (3) make a floristic inventory of the macrophytes of these rivers and (4) establish probable correlations. Pelagic algae as well as those attached to stones and macrophytes were sampled. Physicochemical parameters were measured. Uronema elongatum is filamentous with looped chromatophores. Its density decreases with mineral-organic pollution of rivers with a maximum value at the Miana river of 1.250 ind/l. This density is greater on macrophytes and very low or absent on stones. Uronema elongatum has large cells (15 μm) in less polluted rivers and small in highly polluted rivers (5 μm). It emerges that Uronema elongatum is a filamentous, epiphytic, pollu-resistant species that proliferates in the current waters of the Littoral region in Cameroon. This species can be used as an indicator of pollution in this region.
This communication talks about the methodological problem of ornamental the results of visual inspections for the assessment of the anomaly level of the object of study. This question is studied on the case of sanitation networks but the results can be transferred to other areas. The anomaly level can be defined by three arguments: specialist rules, comparison of a summary note with threshold values and analysis of a longitudinal profile. The calibration of the threshold values requires comparison of the results of assignment of anomaly levels with the statements of the specialists serving as reference. We propose a calibration index that takes into account the costs associated with the different allocation errors.
The anarchic and rampant human impact in the city of Douala is the cause of the deterioration of its wetlands. The overall objective of the study is to determine the water quality of Kambo and Longmayagui rivers of Douala located in peri-urban and urban center respectively from Diatoms indexes. Organic materials and stones were sampled in each river. A total of 43 species belonging to 9 families and 22 genera were identified. The Diatom index is 4.0 to Kambo river (site 1) and 6.9 to Longmayagui river (site 2). These indexes show that Kambo river is less polluted, while Longmayagui river is polluted. The most frequent and abundant Diatoms in the samples of the two streams, Batika river characteristics (control) and Kambo can be used as indicators of unpolluted environment. These are : Amphipleura pellucida Kuetzing, Aulacoseira granulata (Ehrenberg) Simonsen, Cymatopleura solea Bourrelly, Cymbella amphicephala Naegeli, Cymbella cesatii (Rabenhorst) Grunow, Cymbella frustula Krammer and Lange-Berthalot, Cymbella naviculiformis Averswald, Diatoma mesodon (Ehrenberg) Kuetzing, Fragilaria capucina (Kuetzing) Lange-Bertalot, Melosira varians JG Agarda, Navicula accomoda Hustedt, Navicula nivalis Ehrenberg, Nitzschia fonticola Grunow, Pinnularia gibba Ehrenberg and Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth) Kuetzing. Monitoring, based on biological indexes of algae could be developed in order to prevent risks of disruption due to various pollutants.
Toxic metals have a polluting with toxic to living organisms even at low concentrations. The overall objective of the study is to determine the impact of some pollutants on the nutritional quality of corn (Zea mays) and potato (Ipomoea batatas) grown mainly in wetlands of Kambo and Longmayagui rivers. Nitrates, phosphates, cadmium and lead were measured in water and in different corn and potato organs grown in the swampy fields Yassa and Arir with 3 repetitions, respectively. The results obtained show that plants produce fields have chlorosis and necrosis and a yellowing of the leaves. Potato tubers rot and show clearly are not consumables. Ears of corn obtained are big but have some spaced seeds. The cadmium content is high in corn seeds 0.10 ± 0.02 mg/kg dry matter and corn tuber 0.08 ± 0.09 mg/kg of dry matter. This content is greater than the tolerance in humans from 0.005 mg/kg dry matter. The lead content is high in the potato tuber 35.00 ± 0.03 mg/kg dry matter and corn 17.00 ± 0.00 mg/kg dry matter. These lead levels are high the threshold of tolerance in different organs of these plants to the standard of 0.05 mg/kg of dry matter. The nitrate and phosphate are higher in potato roots and corn stalks in relation to other organs. The finding of very advanced level of degradation of wetlands Douala directly affecting the nutritional quality of crops shows that it would be desirable that people and governments aware of the pollution on health over the poor quality of products consumer cultures of these lowlands.
Assessing the MDGs with regard to the EFA in Goma, the description of child schooling made it possible to show that the proportion of unschooled children aged 6-14 years in the surveyed households is of 25%. The situation is even amplified by the fact that 53. 5% of households acknowledge having children that dropped out of school in the 2013-2014 school year or in the previous years. Considering children’s lack of access to education, it transpires that the causes of their dropping out of school and exclusion from educational institutions are insolvency (59%), parents’ joblessness (47. 5%) and the lack of school-fees (52. 5%). In an illustrative manner, the majority of stakes are typically socio-economic.
The aim of the present study is to explore the factors/significant others that influence the decision making process of high school students concerning their career choice/subject selection and to find out the most suitable time for the implementation of career exploration program in the course of studies. For this purpose semi-structured interviews were done form 120 male and 80 female students (from high school, college and university), their parents (n=80) and teachers (n=100) through convenience sampling and four questions were asked from them. First question was open ended while remaining three had few choices and open response option. The data was collected from Pakistani government schools, colleges and universities. On the collected data thematic analysis was done along with the percentages. Results highlighted the role of parents as the most significant person in students’ life who influences their subject selection and this way determines the future career. Next the most recommended time for career counseling services is when students had passed their secondary school exams and just enrolled in high school and is going to choose subjects. On the basis of above findings it is concluded that career counseling should be done at high school stage and parents should be the part of counseling sessions.
This article seeks to know whether the Congolese system of repression of sexual violence has got some strengths. Indeed, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is a post-conflict country that has suffered too much from the pangs of war, whose monstrosities are more noticeable in sexual violence. These infringements are serious insofar as they run counter to the universally accepted value of sexual freedom. Congolese criminal law is no exception to other criminal systems of comparative law. In this sense, Act No. 06/018 of 20 July 2006 modifying and supplementing the Criminal Code, has made a great deal of fundamental innovations (requalifying rape, including other offenses of sexual violence with many more serious penalties). The same applies to formal innovations (such as the victim 's right to initiate proceedings, the victim' s right to compensation, mandatory private session, irrelevance of criminal immunities in the event of sexual violence, prohibition of transactional fines, miscellaneous expert reports..). Finally, Act No. 09/001 of 10 January 2009 on the protection of children has criminalized certain other sexual assaults, mainly against a child. Such are the strengths of the Congolese penal system in the repression of sexual violence.
Congolese criminal justice encounters a lot of difficulties in the repression of sexual violence offenses. This concerns the slowness in the conduct of both pre-judicial and judicial instructions, and the failure to enforce criminal convictions. Factors favoring such non-fulfillment include delays in the delivery of judicial decisions outside the statutory time limit, the determination of the amount of compensation by the judge in accordance with his firm conviction, and the insolvency of convicted persons. To the facts stated above, we can add enforced execution against the condemned state, the procedural complexity required to execute a judgment, the very advanced state of disrepair and criminogeneity of the prisons, and houses of incarceration over the country also favor escapes. Evasion favors the non-execution of judicial convictions.
To remedy this, restorative justice is proposed to the Congolese legislator. Indeed this form of justice offers several restorative paradigms of both the perpetrator of sexual violence, as well as society and victims. Based on this, criminal mediation, penal composition, the Family Group Conference, the Restorative Conference, the Sentencing Circle, and community service are more appropriate to criminal justice against sexual violence in Democratic Republic of Congo.
Cassava clothes a strong nutritional potential and is a means of struggle against the food insecurity in the region, it constitutes an important source of calories. Its culture procures some important incomes to the small producers through the world. Tubers of cassava, as well as its drifted products, flow out everywhere without difficulty. In spite its importance, so much at the level of the food security of populations, South-Kivu’s province arranges a middle score of poor food consumption, the territory of Mwenga represents among territories having recorded scores of food consumption most critical of the province (64,8%). Although cassava presents a big faculty of adaptation to different ecological conditions, its output knows several constraints, the utilization of very appreciable local varieties to illnesses and the devastating, practices inappropriate farming, the no implication of actors to push producers. We raised that 34% of cassava producers have an age group that varies between 31-40years old, a great number of women. It would be bound to the fact that men interest themselves to the mining activities to the detriment of agriculture in our middle of survey. Producers are confronted to the difficulty of access to the credit to achieve this activity, the no political actor implication and no governmental for the improvement of this culture whereas agriculture constitutes the main source of income of 42% of producers. The upsurge of illnesses as the mosaic, the Cassava brown Steak disease, the «cercosporiose», and the «bactériose» constitutes a brake for the growth and the development of the culture. The surface cultivated by the peasant has a negative correlation (r=-0,212) with cassava’s price. What would mean that more the surface is not big, more the price that it fixes is affordable, and beneficial. We also notice that the cultivated surface has a positive correlation with the workforce for the reaping, the ploughing, and the first weeding.
The present study is based on the structural analysis of the diameters of the three species: Musanga cecropioides R.BR, (Parasolier), Prioria balsamifera (Vermoesen) Breteler (Tola) and Prioria oxyphylla (Harms) Breteler (Tchitola) Illegal settlements by people living on the Yoko Forest Reserve. P. balsamifera and P. oxyphylla do not have a good regeneration, M. secropioides to a trend towards a good generation but does not have individuals from class 9. The results show that M. cecropioides is declared non-vulnerable (94.5%) in Yoko while P. balsamifera and P. oxyphylla are said to be vulnerable. This is explained by the low vulnerability index obtained for these two species, ie 30.9% and 26.7%.
A study on the adaptation of improved varieties of rice was carried out in ISEA Bokonzi experimental site in Kungu territory, Sud Ubangi province (Democratic Republic of the Congo). The main objective of the study was to evaluate the adaptation of these three improved varieties (IRAT 112, NERICA 7 and NERICA 4) in the territory of diffusing. The results showed no significant differences between them and all varieties were well adapted in the ecological conditions of the experimental site. However, in the harvest, NERICA 7 revealed a great yield of rice in husk.
Onchocerciasis affects 20 to 30 million people worldwide, 95% of them in live Africa. An estimated one million blind people are affected by onchocerciasis. It is transmitted by the bite of females of the genus Simulium, of which more than 1300 species have been described in the world. The 15 health areas of the Kinshasa city under ivermectin, do not cover all the meeting points between blackfly and man in the simulidian foci of Kinshasa. The best way to protect against exophilic vectors (exophagous), which in addition have a biology little known like all the species of black flies known until then, is the use of the repellents of which the most used currently is the DEET. But these products are not very accessible to the African populations (due to cost and availability). It was then necessary to propose a solution adapted to our societies. Thus, the repelling efficiency of Cocos nucifera oil was tested against DEET against Simulium squamosum. Selected technicians were treated by anointing their legs and forearms, each with a particular repellent and placed on the ground to capture the black flies according to the traditional method of catching on human bait. Blackflies captured by repellent treatments were counted and their numbers compared using statistical tests. Statistical analysis of the number of blackflies caught by treatment revealed no significant differences between DEET and Cocos nucifera. In dermal application, the oil of Coconut has real repulsive properties against Simulium squamosum compared to DEET.
The influence of combination of agricultural product (rice bran)/fertilizer (goat dropping and manner NPK-17-17-17) was tested within 9 months in growing performances of Nile tilapia, bred in semi-drained pond. The mean results showed that the parameters of aquatic environment, in particularly temperature (29°C - 36°C) and pH (5.5 – 6.5), fluctuate in the tolerance limits of Nile tilapia. Growing performances are interesting: Rice bran combined with mineral or organic fertilization profit well to Nile tilapia growing with 0.42g/day of weight advantage against 0.29g/day for the witness. It is the same for yield which is 1.8 times and 1.7 times more the witness, about an increasing of 80.5 and 67.6% of natural productivity, respectively for NPK-17-17-17 and organic fertilizer goat dropping-based.