In the commune of Masina, as elsewhere in the democratic republic of Congo, the sector of rudology or the systematic study of waste has so far been little or badly known. Thus, technical studies and scientific research must be carried out to better understand this sector and spare the populations from various consequences linked to poor waste management. It is in this logic that is located this study which consists in making an inventory of fixtures on the management of the municipal waste with a view to possible improvement. At the end of the investigations, it appears overall that the solid household waste management system set up in the municipality of Masina is anti-ecological. This is explained by the combination of several variables, in particular:
- the absence of a real policy of ecological development of the territory, of good governance and of environmental education/responsibilization of the population;
- the ignorance and ecological incompetence of the municipal authorities (77%), the team in charge of waste collection (100%) and the inhabitants of the municipality of Masina (71,4%);
- a multifaceted poverty (moral and materiel) and a negligence of the residents which lead them to live in insalubrity;
- the use of unsuitable and non-ecological solid waste management methods and techniques (39%).
Therefore, it seems urgent that producers of waste and decision-makers question themselves and make amends in order to assume themselves differently as consumer-pays and polluter-pays.
Due to a variety of reasons, reading has always been a significant problem for the majority of Moroccan high school pupils. This skill reflects the various interactions and operations that the reader’s eyes and brain engage in in order to understand what they read. Teachers continue to place more emphasis on teaching vocabulary, idioms, syntax, and sentence structure than on helping pupils develop their reading comprehension. Due to the traditional reading teaching, it is difficult for teachers to cultivate students’ interest in reading (Yang, 2019). Teachers rarely take into account the importance of prior knowledge as one of the main issues with comprehension training at different competence levels. To make it more clear, Moroccan high school teachers do not provide their EFL readers with prior instructions or clear strategies to enable them to comprehend the reading material in the textbooks used. The paper highlights the importance of prior knowledge in teaching reading comprehension in order to come up with a successful classroom full of enjoyable and accurate comprehension. It is the role of the teacher to help their students become better readers by teaching them how to activate and use their prior knowledge.
By this study, we evaluate, by incubation in the laboratory, the hydrolysis and the kinetics of mineralization of the urea used in Arenoferralsol and Ferralsol, as well as to appreciate, at the same time, the activity of microorganisms by the quantity of CO2 released over 15 days.
In Arenoferralsol, the sharp rise in pH observed during the first 7 days of incubation denotes a strong hydrolysis of urea inhibiting the activity of microorganisms with, as a consequence, a low mineralization of nitrogen. The sharp rise in pH correlates with the massive volatilization of NH3 recorded during this time span. Beyond the 7th day, the decrease in volatile NH3 began, the resumption of microbial activity and the gradual increase in nitrification.
On the other hand, in Ferralsol, it was recorded, in the same space of time, a weak rise in pH indicating a weak release of NH3, but, at the same time also a weak microbial respiration and a weak transformation of urea nitrogen. The pH, although raised to an average of 5.5, nevertheless remained strongly acidic. The drop in pH observed from the 11th day of incubation did not, however, stimulate the formation of NH4+-N and CO2, which still remained low. Thus, the NO3--N content experienced some increase. Hence, the conclusion that nitrification in this type of soil is very slow due to its high acidity.
Taking into account the results observed in the two soils, nitrification as well as volatilization seem to be more active in Arenoferralsol compared to Ferralsol. Because, the acid state of Ferralsol as well as the quality of the organic matter combine to inhibit nitrification by destroying microbial life, especially those responsible for nitrification while progressive nitrification is noticeable in Arenoferralsol.
The present work proposes an economic-structural study of a bridge girder with two variants: the metallic Vierendeel girder and the Warren type steel truss girder formed of top and bottom chords and diagonals in order to propose the girder that fulfills the conditions of Ultimate Limit State (ULS), Serviceability Limit State (SLS) and economically profitable for the bridge over the Kahira River in Sake, Goma in the Capital of North Kivu in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In order to analyze structural elements, the French method of loads on bridges was used, the Naylor method derived from the Cross moment distribution method was used for the analysis of the Vierendeel girder, the method of joints and method of sections for the Warren truss girder; the French code «Béton Armé aux Etats Limites 91 modified 99» was used for the design of the reinforced concrete parts; the Eurocode 3 and the «Construction Métallique 66 (CM66) » were used to determine the cross-sectional area of different elements of the steel girder. An economic study was carried out passing the bill of quantities and cost estimate for each type of beam giving a total of $2485.1 for the Vierendeel beam, a total of $5866.95 for the Warren truss beam, the total cost of the Vierendeel beam representing 42.36% of the total cost of the Warren truss beam. The Vierendeel girder meeting the structural and economic conditions is proposed for the bridge over the Kahira River in Sake.
Field fertilization trials were conducted on 15 cm high rice stubble in lowland rainfed rice to determine the effectiveness of mineral nutrition on yields and mineral contents of grain and straw of Nerica L 14 ratoon. 4 complete block design of 7 fully randomized treatments were used. N and K significantly stimulated tillering (p= 0,05; 419 and 407 Nbm-2), panicle production (p = 0.04; 330 and 337 Nbm-2), number of grains per panicle (p = 0,00; 66 grains / panicle) as did P, Ca, Mn and Zn. GY and SY due to N were highest by 1,7 tha-1 (p < 0,00) and 1,4 tha-1 (p = 0,01), respectively. However, IRZn (p = 0,04; 68%) was the most important. N promoted high K accumulation in straw (p = 0,02; 1,89% DM) as did Mg (1,72% DM) and Ca (p = 0,01; 0,28% Ms) in grain. 100 N kgha-1 or in combination with 10 Zn kgha-1 may be recommended for rainfed lowland rice ratoon cultivation.
The objective of this project is to develop a palm nuts crusher to produce a large quantity of kernels for the benefit of the inhabitants of Loango Sector in Kongo-Central in the Democratic Republic of Congo. During the dry season, the palm trees produce a small quantity of palm nuts for the manufacture of palm oil. Farmers resort to the exploitation of palmite nuts by separating them with the fibers which are considered to be the residues during the extraction of palm oil.
To have an estimated quantity of 30 and 35 kg of almonds per week, a household has to crush the palm nuts manually. The process is done using two stones with which the women (the family) break the nuts one by one with the risk of injury and fracture of fingers for 4 or 5 days in order to sell them at the market on the 6th day.
To overcome the problems of crushing palm kernels, we have developed a crusher capable of crushing several tons of palm kernels in a short time. The tests showed that after 9 minutes the machine crushed 200 kg of almonds on the first test and 22 minutes on the second test of 600 kg.