The objective of this study is to present the morphology of the bottom and to characterise the filling dynamics in the downstream sector of Buyo lake. A bathymetric survey carried out in March 2021 and the use of an old topographic map of the Buyo hydroelectric development dated 1980, allowed to apprehend the impact of the hydrosedimentary processes on the morphological evolution of the Buyo lake bottom. The analysis of the topo-bathymetric maps revealed that the downstream sector of Buyo Lake presents a rather irregular relief with depths ranging from 0 to 26 m. The greatest depths are located at the level of the flood spillway and the shallowest depths in the vicinity of the water intake. The 3D map of the lake shows the presence of depressions and shallows. The maximum depth was 24 m in 1982 and will be 26 m in 2021. In some places, the depressions of 4 and 22 m that were recorded in 1982 are 6 and 16 m respectively in 2021. The volume of deposition over the last 39 years (1982 to 2021) is estimated to be about 6,130,297.08 m³ of sediment with a filling rate of 68 cm/year. The analysis of the main channels revealed bathymetric profiles of intermediate and « V » morphology.
This research addresses the issue of female leadership in DR Congo. It is important to note that in certain sectors of life (music for example), women are very involved and this is a major role. However, there are far fewer women in important positions, in the circles where decisions are made, hence this article makes some recommendations for this to change.
In urban areas, trees remain the essential element in maintaining the environmental balance. Specifically, this study aimed to: (i) quantify the loss of urban tree cover and deepen knowledge of the drivers of this urban deforestation; (ii) understand the influence of the loss on the local climate; and (iii) clarify the management methods of this urban ecosystem guaranteeing environmental resilience. The results of analyzes showed that in Kinshasa, trees are cut even in the inhabited plots in order to supply the pastry companies and nganda ntaba with firewood. Between 2000 and 2020, nearly 25% of the initial tree area was deforested; the average annual loss of tree cover in the urban and peri-urban area is estimated at approximately 1128.8 ± 910.9 ha. The average daily quantity consumed by an artisanal bakery and a nganda ntaba amounts respectively to 3.36±1.25 m3 and 2±0.67 bundles of firewood. The results of the analyzes demonstrated the influence of urban tree cover loss in Kinshasa on the increase in local temperature. The restructuration of Kinshasa city, the promotion of renewable energy and urban forestry, would make Kinshasa a resilient city.
The production of maize (Zea mays L.) is subject to many constraints, particularly weeds and insects. Among the latter, the fall armyworm S. frugiperda, the foliage-feeding insect S. derogate and the aphid R. maidis cause massive crop losses. This study focused on the evaluation of maize crop infestation by these invasive insects according to the degree of plot weediness in a farm environment. The data collected in maize fields on the rate of weediness and damage from insects were treated using Statistica 7.1. software. The results obtained about the dispersion of damage caused by insect and the rates of plot weediness showed variable correlations between these two biological pests according to the concerned insect. Damages has been accentuated while the weediness. S. frugiperda was the major pest and its attacks were remarkable between a weediness rate of 10 and 60%. Damages of S. derogata were more important for a weediness degree of 45%. Regarding R. maidis, it was more aggressive when the weediness rate in maize plots reached 50%. The results of this study could offer useful tools in the main invasive insect pests control strategy in the maize crops.