This paper is based on the study conducted in Dodoma Municipality at Madukani Ward to assess the contribution of petty trade to household income poverty reduction. Specifically, the study examined the nature of business done by petty traders, income and expenditure level of individuals from petty trading and assessed other income generating activities among petty traders. Data for this study were collected using interviews as the method of data collection whereby questionnaires were administered to 110 petty traders who were selected by using both random and purposive sampling techniques. The study involved collection of quantitative and qualitative data which was analyzed through SPSS to obtain frequencies in tables and figures. Qualitative data collected through interview and observation was analyzed by using content analysis. This was to give summary of each topic discussed and identify the content of discussion. The results from the study revealed that petty trade is the backbone of most of the traders as it has shown many changes in the lives of the respondents as they were more able to tackle most of the instances that they could not when they were not engaged in petty trading. The study provides the effective measures to be done in order to improve the status of petty trade.
In global market, where demand as well as the cost fluctuates rapidly, whereas the inventory holding capacity and capital to be invested doesn't change at the same pace; long term planning seems reasonable to avoid any loss either due to overstocking the inventory or due to stock-outs. This paper presents proposes a deterministic mathematical model to effectively control the inventory holdings. Proposed model considers the periodic fluctuations in demand and cost that affect the cost and quantity of inventory holding under the constraint that available storage space is limited. It minimizes the total cost of inventory in a given period of time and without any shortages.
Village Community banks have been reported to benefit the poorer men and women in developing countries since their establishment. In Tanzania, VICOBA and other informal financial institutions have reached 27.9% of rural communities who were initially unserved. Much as the grassroots communities have been served by VICOBA few studies have been conducted in Arumeru Distict to evaluate how VICOBA have benefited the poor. It was from this concern that this study was conducted in June 2012 to assess the services, achievements and challenges pertaining to VICOBA in Arumeru District. A sample of 96 respondents was selected for the study. From the study it was found that Village Community Bank members of Muhorere, Mchele mchele and Mwangaza groups have benefited as members and sole owners of the banks. Members have been empowered in different skills and received different services such as soft loans, savings, shares, trainings and social or emergency loans. The banks on the other hand have achieved a lot since their commencement. There has been an expansion of their member base, their stakeholder base and even their capital base. Nevertheless there have been some hurdles encountered such as illiteracy for some members, inadequate capital and lack of bank offices among others.
The study examined the effects of financial liberalization in Singida region. Data collected through questionnaire while survey and focus group discussion techniques applied. Data were analysed through Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 11.5. Results indicated that four types of loans offered by financial institutions includes; personal loans offered to employees of different organizations; Mortgage loans given to business persons with existing business; Corporate loans targeted agricultural groups; and loans is offered to SACCOs from banks. However no loans found favored directly youth as first target as a result Persistence of Youth unemployed is increasingly in Singida region. It is concluded that contribution of financial liberalization to youth employment in Singida municipality is only 22.5%. The researchers recommended that government should supported financial sectors to play a significant role in economy by establishment of appropriate policies which consolidate the gains of first generation reforms.
Online banking is facing too many types of resistance which hinders its adoption by Tunisian customers. The objective behind this present research is to identify the barriers underlying the non adoption of online banking in Tunisia. It is based on a survey of nearly 150 Tunisian customers who are non adopters of internet banking services. This study identifies three groups of non- adopters of online banking technology: the postponers, the opponents and the rejectors. On the one hand, the results indicate that the three groups of non- adopters differ significantly with respect to psychological barriers (tradition and image). On the other hand they revele that the functional barriers (use, value and risk) have no impact on the resistance to the adoption of e- banking in Tunisia.
Insecticide treated net (ITNs) is known to have a major impact on malaria control if properly used. The study was carried out to ascertain the impact of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) on malaria prevalence in Argungu, Northwestern Nigeria a decade after free distribution of ITNs. Questionnaires were administered to obtain relevant information such as: age, occupation, and ownership and use or otherwise of ITNs. Capillary blood samples obtained using sterile lancet were used in making thick blood films which were stained using Giemsa staining technique. The stained thick films were all examined microscopically for malaria parasites. Of the 300 household studied 226(75%) possessed at least one ITNs. Possession of ITNs is significantly associated with occupation (P<0.05). Eighty nine percent of the civil servants had at least one ITNs, and only 40% of the unemployed household had at least one ITNs. Not all these ITNs are being put into use. Only 113(57%) out of the 199 pregnant women used ITNs the night before the survey. Malaria prevalence is more among non ITNs users with proportionate decrease with increase in age among pregnant women. Impact of insecticide treated nets on preventing malaria may be minimized if they are not used properly most especially by the vulnerable populations.
According to growth of electricity demand and the increased number of non-linear loads in power grids, providing a high quality electrical power should be considered. In this paper, voltage sag and swell of the power quality issues are studied and distributed power flow controller (DPFC) is used to mitigate the voltage deviation and improve power quality. The DPFC is a new FACTS device, which its structure is similar to unified power flow controller (UPFC). In spite of UPFC, in DPFC the common dc-link between the shunt and series converters is eliminated and three-phase series converter is divided to several single-phase series distributed converters through the line. The case study contains a DPFC sited in a single-machine infinite bus power system including two parallel transmission lines, which simulated in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The presented simulation results validate the DPFC ability to improve the power quality.
The cable transmission of the information between computer devices or / and electronic devices is increasingly replaced by wireless transmission. Bluetooth modules are currently among the best performing wireless communication devices. They are characterized by their small size, excellent radio range and low power consumption. The Bluetooth technology is commonly used for creating wireless networks in the IT field (keyboard, mouse, printer…). However, this technology can be used in many more application. In this paper we describe a way to apply the Bluetooth technology in various industrial fields. The project objective is to establish a Bluetooth communication between industrial supervision system (SS) and a peripheral such as a motor. The peripheral is configured as a slave, while the supervision system is configured as a master. In this article we describe the party of the Bluetooth peripheral.
The area of the plateau of phosphates, and the plain of Tadla which extends over an area of 12300 km2 in Morocco central, is very well known for its interests industrial, economic and social very important. The groundwater resources in waters that is more vulnerable to overexploitation and/or to the alteration. The aquifer system is present in the coverage meso-Cenozoic and quaternary which has deposited on the Paleozoic formations. The modeling of the hydrodynamic functioning of this multilayered system allows the understanding and monitoring of the hydrogeological balance sheets, it is in the heart of the management of resources and their preservation. This work aims at the finite difference modeling the multi-layered complex of the plateau of phosphates and the plain of Tadla, the application adopted for the realization of the modeling is the GMS (Groundwater Modeling System of Aquaveo) with the Modflow code (U.S. Geological Survey) which have proved flexible enough for the design and the manipulation of the modeling. The conceptual model is composed of 4 bunk aquifers. The rivers of Oum Errabia, Derna, Laabid and Tassawout rivers form the main drains in the model, as-the climate inputs combined with the surplus water after irrigation of the perimeters of Tadla, without evaluated by the model of the hydrological balance "Wetspass" and form the main resource of the recharging. From the results of the timing of the model of the aquifer system "in whole" it may be pointed out its flexibility to reproduce the water operation of a complex system and multi-layered. The Oum Errabia, Derna, Laabid and Tassawout rivers form the main drains in the model, inputs are represented by climate apport combined with the surplus water after irrigation of the perimeters of Tadla without evaluated by the hydrological balance model "Wetspass". From the results of the calibration of the "entirely" aquifer system model we can see flexibility to reproduce the hydrological functioning of a complex and multi-layered system.
The particular interest to sexual advertising or shockvertinsing returns to his considerable effect on advertising efficiency in spite of critics about the social's and ethical's implications. However, these ads can engender negative affective reaction as well as feeling of embarrassment which can influence and modify the behaviour and especially attitudes toward the ads and brand. This paper try to study the impact of negative emotions on embarrassment and attitudes toward the ad and the brand and so contributes to comprehension of advertising process.