Introduction: In a national context of increasing urban populations and commitment to universal health coverage, this study aims to analyze the household income and health care expenditure in the city of Goma, Eastern DRC.Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional study was based on a 2017 survey of a sample of 1,000 households in the urban and suburban areas of the City of Goma on household income and health care expenditures during the last episode of illness. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 23.Results: The median monthly household income was 140 Usd, with 89.9% of households living on less than 1.9 Usd per day. Only 9.1% of households were covered by a health insurance system and 91.6% of households experienced at least one illness episode in the past three months. The use of care were dominated by self-medication by purchasing drugs from the pharmacy (50.7%), with non-care cases (6.8%), and varied by income quartile and gender (p <0.001). The median direct care expenditure was 10.7 Usd (0-2272.5 Usd), with catastrophic expenditures in 42.9% of cases and loss of working days and income, not varying according to income quartile (p> 0.05).Discussion and conclusion: This level of income and catastrophic healthcare expenditure requires progress towards a better thought-out compulsory health insurance system that capitalizes on innovative financing.
Using functionalist theory, this article examines the contribution of digital social networks to the promotion of citizenship education in Côte d'Ivoire. It examines a corpus of ten videos from the Facebook pages of Prefect Vincent Toh Bi Irié, in the section « Allo ! Côte d'Ivoire », and of Maître N'Dri Claver, in « Le droit dit quoi ? ». The results of the content analysis show that the themes dealt with in these videos concern legal issues and moral values. The initiators of these broadcasts wish to participate, on the one hand, in the awakening of the population's conscience and, on the other hand, to give rise to a new generation of citizens who are aware of and subject to the values that underpin the rule of law.
Introduction: The study was about the mapping of health care Organization in urban areas. It aims is to show the apportionment, appurtenance, and profile of the pharmaceutical pharmacies in the Goma city, in eastern DRC. Goma city is served in medicine by the public and private sector. Methodology: The study is cross-sectional and descriptive. It was carried out by an exhaustive census of pharmacies. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS version 23 software. Results: The inventory of pharmacies is 723 in the city of Goma, whether one pharmaceutical office for 1.314 habitants. Almost 70% of them have set up in the last 5 years, with 31% in 2017 alone. One third of pharmacies have official authorization minutes from the Ministry of Health. All of the pharmacies are private for profit and are supplied by the private sector. More than 90% of pharmacies operate in non-standard premises and are run in 92.1% of cases by healthcare providers. Conclusion: Private pharmaceutical pharmacies play a major role in the supply of medicines in urban areas of Goma. Their functioning far from the standards, seems to indicate a lack of regulation, which exposes the population to the consumption of drugs of a potentially non-optimal quality.
The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. However, in Côte d'Ivoire, there is a general decline in yield and quality of production compared to the capacity of the cultivars). The general objective of this study is to contribute to improve the growth of tomato in nursery using organic substrate. Specifically, the germination rate and speed, stem height and number of leaves were determined for each of the formulations in order to determine the ideal substrate formulation in the nursery. The plant material was tomato seed of the variety Cobra 26. The substrates used are soil and carbonized rice husks. The technical equipment consisted of honeycombed plates, a graduated ruler and a mini sprayer. The results obtained show a significant variation of the germination speed according to the formulations. During the growth of the plants in the nursery, the average height of the stems and the average number of leaves, the color of the leaves and the sanitary state of the plants for each formulation were determined and the analysis of the results showed a significant variation of these four variables in relation to the formulations. Formulations including ¼ charred rice husk and ¾ soil gave the best results overall.
The study area is the N'zo-Sassandra (West of Ivory Coast) watershed which is located between longitudes 7°15' and 8°05' West and latitudes 6°50' and 7°50' North. Its area is estimated at 4,310 km2. The objective of this study is to analyze the forecast of the flood flows of the N’zo (Sassandra) river located in the west of the Ivory Coast. The hydroclimatic data used (rainfall, ETP, flow) within the framework of this study extend on the one hand over the historical period (1961-2017) and on the other hand over the future period (2036-2065). The methodological approach adopted is based respectively on the analysis of past floods, the evaluation of the chosen rainfall-discharge model, the prospective climatic analysis and the prospective analysis of the flood flows. The variables used to describe the future evolution of these floods are the decennial and centennial quantiles of the annual maximum monthly mean discharges. Thus, an optimistic climate forecast scenario was used (RCP 2.6). This climatic scenario then fed into a hydrological rainfall-discharge model (GR2M model) calibrated to the reference period 1961-1990 and validated over the period 1991-2017. In response to climate forcing, future monthly flood discharges (QMXA) were simulated. The main results show that the best statistical law retained following the frequency analysis of the flood flows is the Gamma law which was used to estimate the frequency flows. The GR2M model evaluated, presented a good performance in calibration (79.7%) as in validation (82.7%) and demonstrated a great robustness (+3%) therefore a great capacity to reconstitute the flows of N'zo in Kahin. The climate forecast has shown a decrease in precipitation (-19.7%) and an increase in temperature (+1.6 °C) in the middle of the current century (2036-2065). The expected flood flow quantiles in the middle of the 21st century (2035-2065) are respectively 168.85 m3/s for the ten-year flow and 299.58 m3/s for the one-year flow. Thus, in response to climate change, the forecast of flood flows leads to a worrying drop in frequency flood flows, respectively of the order of 64.56% for the ten-year flood and 61.73% for the 100-year flood compared to their current values.
This study aims to highlight the link between learning time and psychomotor slowing down in STAPS students. It is based on the theory of psychological processes. The study hypothesis states that there is a link between learning time and psychomotor slowing in students. The mixed approach (qualitative and quantitative analysis) was favored. Two types of samples, namely a sample of 15 teachers and that of 24 learners with learning difficulties from undergraduate students in Sciences and Techniques of Physical and Sports Activities participated in the study, from observation, semi-structured individual interviews with teachers and focus groups with students. The results highlight difficulties in carrying out activities during learning, due to their inopportune periods and the poor alternation between physical activities and theoretical activities. Various measures are proposed to facilitate the execution of the activities by all the learners, such as the division of the day in two, for each group, with the afternoon for the physical activities in the evening and the morning for the theoretical ones, with a relaxation time after every 2 hours of learning.
This article addresses the issue of homosexuality in Stefan Zweig’ Confusion, and attempts to read it against the grain, arguing that homosexuals have always been degraded and misrepresented. It attempts to show that the novella could be read socially and contrapuntally as a letter addressed to a sclerotic Austrian society that, on the whole, showed little tolerance towards homosexuals back then.
Through this article, we have tried to demystify the concept of Remote Management, retrace its genesis and reveal the imperativeness of its use. Given the main objective of providing a better understanding of this organizational configuration, we have identified the major key tools and related behaviors, shedding light on the new challenges assigned to contemporary E-Managers.On this basis, we have first undertaken a historical overview to demonstrate that remote management is an operational consequence of drastic changes, at disparate eras and places, in our interaction modes. We have subsequently exposed a concrete model to endorse the effective use of this configuration several years before the recent infatuation for telecommuting. Our choice fell on a regional project of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), called MYTecC, Mediterranean Youth Technology Club, mainly for its avant-garde characteristics. Without claiming to present it as a case study, this project includes several responses about Remote Management since it relies, for the achievement of its objectives, on the involvement of a multicultural team, geographically detached but virtually homogeneous and noticeably operational.
The drastic changes brought by the globalization of the economy and the dissolution of borders has considerably favored the emergence of remote management. In a fluctuating environment, the effectiveness of this new form of organization remains tightly linked to the ability of leaders to adapt their skills and consider the prerequisite of their virtual environment.Thus, it is mandatory for modern managers to wear new behavioral glasses that they can federate, remotely, the ardor of their colleagues and at the same time to break with old hierarchical practices and bureaucratic recipes. More than ever, e-managers must develop a highly team awareness, continually identify tools and techniques and be responsive to whatever kind of limits to foster confidence and build a winning virtual team.
In this paper, we are interested to reduce harmonics odd〖 H〗_k, with k > 1, of the signal in output voltage of five levels single phase and three phase cascade multilevel inverters. This consists to determine optimal switching angles that reduce certain harmonics to zero. As it is usually done, we first mathematically formulate the problem as an algebraic system of equations. After, we transform the problem as an unconstrained optimization problem. Indeed, we optimize the nonlinear functions say F_m and F_t, such that by applying the first order necessary optimality condition, we obtain solutions of the previously considered algebraic system of equations. To solve the problem, we apply conjugate gradient algorithm with both Armijo and Wolfe type line search. With respect to different values of the modulation index, we find optimal angles that eliminate odd harmonics H_k with rank k = 2n ± 1, 1 ≤ n ≤ 5 for single phase inverters and harmonics H_k with rank k = 6n ± 1,1 ≤ n ≤ 3 for three-phase inverters.
In this paper, we present a new approach Pulse Width Modulation, (PWM, for short), to determine the optimal switching angles by Selective Harmonic Elimination of a cascade multilevel inverters. Based on mean voltage values, we address a formula that relates inverters switching angles with voltages in three phase multilevel inverters. After, using inverse generalized technique, we determine such angles expression depending on mean voltages values. In view to eliminate harmonics, we consider these calculated switching angles in the resulting system of nonlinear equations obtained from Fourier series decomposition of the output of three phase and single phase voltage. Therefore, with respect to different values of the modulation rate r, applying Newton algorithm to solve the optimization problem, we obtain for five level inverters, optimal switching angles that eliminate harmonics of rank 3 and 5 for single phase and three phase, respectively.
Rapid and uncontrolled urbanization due to population growth in the city of Korhogo is creating socio-economic and environmental problems. Urban and peri-urban trees (AUP) play an important role in improving this situation. But this knowledge is very limited. Therefore, this research would like to show the types and role of AUPs based on the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) services. Triangulation of methods (analysis of secondary data from the literature review and primary data from surveys and field observation) was used to highlight the types of trees that are predominantly present in the city of Korhogo and their role in the lives of 240 city dwellers. The results showed that (i) there are 44 species, divided into 23 families of which 10 families are dominant. The mango tree (Mangifera indica) is dominant with 80% and the other 20% represent exotic trees such as neem (Azadirachta indica), Acacias Auriculiformis, Eucalyptus, etc. (ii) The role of the trees is derived from those of the MAE services which are: Provisioning (fruits, leaves, wood, food, source of economic income, medicine, with the economic function); Regulating (especially the Provision of shade, recreation, well-being and health, carbon sequestration, oxygenation, microclimate, with the ecological function); Supporting (soil erosion control, maintenance of biodiversity, provision of organic matter, with the ecological function) and Cultural (meditation, education, respect us and custom, spiritual, aesthetic, with the social and cultural function). A sustainable management of all AUP is necessary in the city of Korhogo.
This study was carried out with the aim of clarifying the lithostratigraphy of the Dougbafla –Bandama area located in the southern part of the Birimian belt of Fettékro, in the center-West of Côte d’Ivoire. The vertical succession of these formations can be summarized at the base by volcanic rocks (basaltic and andesitic) mainly basalts, with in intermediate positions several successive volcaniclastic flows of autobrechic type and at the top by Various sedimentary lithologies usually composed of black schists or a more modest volume of sericite or chlorite schists capped with quartzites. These various shales sometimes play an important role of transition between lithologies. This complex is intersected by intrusions (granites, granophyres, granodiorites, tonalites, epidiorites, microgranodiorites, microdiorites, lamprophyres) and several generations of veins and quartz veinlets.
To optimize the in vitro rooting conditions of M. oleifera, a study was carried out to determine the effects of exogenous auxin types on the rhizogenesis of this species. The plant material consisted of the vitro plants obtained after shoot propagation. Nodal sections with induced axillary shoots were placed for two weeks in a root induction medium consisting of MS mod 3B basal medium without auxin (control) and with three different auxins including IAA, IBA and NAA at 0.1µM. The results obtained showed that shoots were better rooted in the absence of the exogenous auxins, yielding 4.76±0.51 roots per shoot with an average length of 9.21±0.93 cm. The least rooting was obtained with NAA, which produced 2.16±0.47 roots per shoot and 3.57±0.82 cm length. NAA induced the largest calli (0.22±0.02 g) in contrast to the control (0.087±0.01 g). Thus, the auxin-free MS mod 3B basal medium would be ideal for rooting M. oleifera shoots in vitro.
This study was initiated to help improve the quality of beef produced at the Port-Bouët slaughterhouse in order to protect the health of consumers and facilitate the implementation of prophylactic measures. This is a retrospective study carried out at the Port-Bouët slaughterhouse on data collected from July 2019 to June 2020 on the cattle received. The data was collected, from January to May 2021, from the digital database of the operating system called the Animal Management and Identification System in Port-Bouët (SYGIAP 3.1). The results indicate that the slaughterhouse is supplied with cattle by four (4) countries with proportions of 47.81% (Burkina Faso), 35.81% (Côte d'Ivoire), 16.23% (Mali) and 0, 15% (Niger). The proportion of cattle slaughtered at the slaughterhouse is 84% and the reasons for seizure with an incidence of more than 10% are congestion (17%), distomatosis (35%) and tuberculosis (39%). For the organs seized, there are the lungs (40.25%) and the liver (55.69%) which have prevalences above 10%; the proportions of total seizures made are 33.33% (1 seizure), 33.33% (1 seizure) and 33.34% (1 seizure) for the following reasons abscess, congestion and tuberculosis respectively. The financial losses linked to these various seizures (partial and total) amount to 76,770,400 FCFA. The Port-Bouët slaughterhouse should feed back the information obtained during the inspections allowing the implementation of prophylactic measures from the origin of the animals in order to reduce the financial and health impacts of zoonoses.