In China, harvest cost of natural rubber is high due to a declining rubber price, less favorable agroclimate, and skilled tapper labor shortage. Reduction in cost of latex harvest by tapping machine in a straight line will make rubber production more cost effective. To evaluate the feasibility of tapping in a straight line, a comparison of two tapping practices (horizontally/traditionally tapping and vertically/straightly tapping) was conducted in clone Reyan88-13. Compared with horizontally tapping, vertically tapping increases dry rubber content and Mg2+ content, significantly decreases initial latex flow velocity, dry rubber yield per cut length, reduces thiols content and Cu2+ content, and alters physical and mechanical properties of raw rubber and vulcanizate. Taken together, vertically tapping reduces tapping intensity, alters physical and mechanical properties of raw rubber and vulcanizate at the cost of less rubber latex yield.
This study is part of the Public Health field, in a transversal descriptive approach, oriented towards reproductive health. It covers the period from January to March 2020.Its objective is to identify the obstacles to the hygienic management of menstruation by high school girls in school. To achieve this goal, we used the survey as a method, the interview was used as a data collection technique, and the interview guide served as a data collection instrument. The Lycéennes constituted for us the study population, the chosen space is the ESENGO Lycée in the town hall of Gemena, Province of Sud-Ubangi in DRC. The sample size for this study is 80 high school girls chosen for convenience.It therefore turns out that age and ignorance combined are at the head of the obstacles identified. Girls who have not reached the age of majority do not have the right to information about their active sex life, talking about it remains a taboo in African societies, even more so than talking about defecation. (Hamdalaye HERE, 2000). Some of them are totally ignorant of the warning signs of menstruation, the lack of prefabricated towels (ignorance of their use and lack of financial means to get them (poverty), hence, resort to the collection of towels (pieces of loincloths, dirty fabrics, etc.), the sanitary facilities even existing within schools, are not used properly (less hygienic conditions, the non-separation of these facilities according to sex, and the absence of a permanent source d water supply ...) can be counted among the obstacles to the unhygienic management of menses at school. This pushes girls to return, to miss class, sometimes to abandon in case of leakage of blood stains on their This can compromise their academic or even professional performance.
Around the world, water has always been a mysterious element. Designated as a natural drink, it is and remains a major constituent of our body. Aware that thousands of people do not have access to drinking water, this study aims to develop an organic suspension, extract of Moringa oleifera seeds capable of clarifying and partially disinfecting turbid and contaminated water intended for consumption. The study method initially consisted in collecting plant drugs in order to produce a suspension (extract of seed of Moringa oleifera). Secondly to study the physico-chemical (clarifying) properties followed by a microbiological (bacteriological) study before and after application of this suspension at different concentrations on crude water samples meticulously sampled from some wells in Parakou city. The experimental results have shown a strong improvement in the physico-chemical parameters involved, in particular color, turbidity and conductivity with clarification rates of 84.33% for color and 87.58% for turbidity; followed by a considerable reduction in the bacterial flora estimated at 66.46% of the total Coliforms; 81.19% of mesophilic aerobic germs; 77.78% of Escherichia coli, then a total elimination of faecal Streptococci with 100% and Staphylococcus aureus with 100%, thus confirming the improvement in the organoleptic and sanitary quality of drinking water by extracts of seeds of Moringa oleifera.
The study comparatively evaluates the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Profitability in the fuel and gas sectors in Ghana. The descriptive survey design and quantitative methods was adopted to find a relationship between innovations in strategic stakeholder engagement with corporate profitability or bottom-line, with the mediating role of strategic stakeholder engagement leading to a firm’s bottom-line. An analysis of strategic stakeholder engagement and bottom-line of selected fuel and gas companies in the Kumasi Metropolitan, Asokore Mampong, Oforikrom and Ejisu Municipalities was provided.A five point closed ended Likert Scale self-administrable structured questionnaire and researcher guide to aid participants answer relevant questions was used to confirm that innovations in strategic stakeholder engagement fueled increases in corporate bottom-line of selected companies. The four major steps of analysing data collected from Atkinson’s (2002) categories of quantitative data analysis was used, following which the primary data/information gathered and coded was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences to guarantee validity and reliability of the various investigations conducted. The hierarchical multiple regression of the Baron and Kenny’s (1986) procedure was also adopted to analyse for study the mediating effect of innovation on the relationship between strategic stakeholder engagement and corporate bottom-line.The study opines the involvement of key stakeholder participation in the siting and general operations of fuel and gas companies given the divergent viewpoints of operators and stakeholders (O’Riordan, 2017). A discovery of a statistically significant positive influence of perceptions of CSR towards customers on an organization’s image in general intensifies the suggestion that mangers of fuel and gas sectors take special interest in innovative ways of engaging strategic stakeholders due to its influence and ripple mediating effect on corporate bottom-line to improve the performance of the business or induces increases in profit.
Part of studies on the efficiency of the education system, this study aims to determine the individual variables of the school principal which significantly influence the performance of schoolchildren in life skills. After analyzing performance, the conclusions are as follows:From the demographic background, the best performances are those of schools run by women; also, the oldest directors produce better results. This question refers to the director’s seniority and experience.Regarding qualifications, schools lead by Graduate Directors produce the best results against State Graduates and Licensees. The directors who have achieved a high percentage in state exams are not necessarily those with the best results for schoolchildren. As for the option followed in secondary school by the directors, no difference was recorded.Seniority as director and seniority in the current school affect results despite atypical cases. For recycling, non-recycled managers achieved better results than recycled. The best performances are those of the most populated schools, contrary to pedagogical expectations.Homogeneous schools are more efficient than mixed schools. The number of teachers and the number of qualified teachers in schools led to significant differences in performance.Schoolchildren's results differ significantly according to several characteristics of the principals. It seems important to consider these when recruiting and promoting teachers to this school steering. Considering that we are in the humanities sciences, these results should be considered with caution and relativity.
Based on field research, observations, and interview, this article aims to describe the value chain of fish farming products in the Ébrié lagoon. It poses the problem of its lack of knowledge which undermines the good development of this sector. The article shows that this value chain is driven by various actors. A first group composed of the producer (fish farmer), distributor, wholesaler, retailer and consumer. These are the key players in the chain and perform the functions directly linked to the fish farming activity. In addition, they are supported by another group of actors (supervisory and extension structure, suppliers of inputs and equipment, scientific research, financial institutions). These two groups of actors work closely together for the proper functioning of the fish value chain in the Ébrié lagoon.
In the western Region of Cameroon, fresh fish is a little food available. Fish is most often sold in its frozen or smoked form because of the long period it can put in households before being consumed. Smocked or dried fishes are generally attacked by insect pests. In order to limit the losses due to these pests, processors and sellers of dry fishes use chemicals. The aim of the study was to determine the constraints linked to storage of smocked fish. The inventory of the species of smocked fishes was done in 10 camps of fishermen. 210 storage tools were inspected, then characterized and the smocked fishes identified. During this survey, 32 samples of Clarias gariepinus, 25 of Oreochromis niloticus and 16 of Hemichromis fasciatus was collected and put in observation at the laboratory. It appears that 13 species of fishes grouped into 5 families are smocked. The Cichlidae family is the most abundant (43.2%). The basket is the most used storage tool (65%) with the longest storage time (4 days). The rate of natural infestation is high in Clarias gariepinus (89.84%) and Oreochromis niloticus (88.12%). During storage, two species of Coleoptera were identified: Dermestes maculatus (735 individuals) and Necrobia rufipes (117 individuals). O. niloticus records the largest mass of drilling meal (5.92 ± 1.13g) and C. gariepinus the largest mass loss (39.44 ± 3.64g). To limit their damages, populations use 10 chemicals. These insecticides, all dangerous, divided into 3 toxicological classes are not approved in Cameroon.
This research explores the performances of elementary school fourth form teachers in French, according to the content of the national program of elementary school in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Exactly it is about the knowledges in French language and the knowledges in methods and process for a correct transmission of the matter to pupils.The results of this study show that the global achievement has reached the level of 72 %. 122 teachers by 196, to say 62.2 %, have reached the success level fixed at 70 % (UNESCO), and 74 teachers by 196, to say 37.8 %, haven’t reached that threshold.The same results show also that the global achievement is at level of 16.31 % in methods and process. 148 teachers by 196, to say 75.51 %, do not exceed the note of 4/16. The teachers who reach the note of 8/16 or more, are 12 by 196, to say 6.12 %.This study shows at last that the age is the strongest predictor of teachers’ performances in knowledges of French language. It is followed by the oldness in the work. The oldness in the fourth form takes the final position as predictor of teachers’ performances.
Background: Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive illness, is one of the most challenging psychiatric disorders to manage. Purpose: The objectives of this study are to research the socio-demographic and professional profile of patients hospitalized for bipolar disorder in the Dalal Xel mental health center of Fatick and to understand the factors associated with the evolution of the prevalence of bipolar disorder in the Senegalese context. Methods: It was a cross-sectional, retrospective, descriptive and analytical study. It was conducted in the hospitalization department of Dalal Xel Mental Health and included all patients hospitalized in this service between 2004 and 2013 and whose medical file was found. Results: The processing of the hospital service records made it possible to collect 6,896 patient files. Among these hospitalized patients, 731 were diagnosed with bipolar disorder (11.4%). The majority of patients were female (52.7%), lived in rural areas (53.4%), educated (66.2%). The majority had an occupation (74.1%) and were married (51.7%). The average age was 36.52 years with a standard deviation of 13.3 years. Between 2004 and 2013, the profile of the patient with bipolar disorder did not change for sex, age, professional activity, marriage. Religion and nationality remained influenced by the demographic context of Senegal. Conclusion: Bipolar disorder is influenced by biological (age, sex), social (married) and professional factors. The medical prescriptions must consider the patient's procreation and her professional activity. It is also important to involve the family in psychological support and to reinforce professional reintegration.
Background: The covid-19 has reached DRC. Numbers of confirmed cases and deaths are increasing despite the confinement strategy implemented since March 2020. In addition, mainly for economic reasons, the population is claiming for the confinement measures to be waived, which may lead to an increase of the risk of infection, morbidity and mortality related to Covid-19, which calls for a more focused prevention strategy. Nevertheless, Covid-19 prevention approach is more social distancing and hygiene oriented, with few attention to nutrition and other lifestyle aspects such as alcohol use, smoking and physical activity.Objective: to support the DRC health authority’s efforts for empowering populations for better prevention, by designing a more comprehensive approach including nutrition and other lifestyle factors.Design: This paper is a context analysis and a review and viewpoints about different health aspects that should be integrated when designing a national comprehensive strategy to prevent covid-19 in DRC.Conclusion and recommendations: The public health authorities to empower the populations against Covid-19 infection through a comprehensive approach consisting of sensitization at all levels, not only about social distancing and washing hands as it’s being the case, but also and of utmost importance, about nutrition and other lifestyle factors such as alcohol use, smoking and physical activity since they affect immunity. The nutrition factor should include the dietetic management of patients with chronic diseases and/or co-infections. Therefore, task forces for fighting covid-19epidemic in DRC should include nutrition specialists and researchers for more comprehensive approaches against covid-19, to the ultimate interest of the population.