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International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research
ISSN: 2351-8014
 
 
Wednesday 27 January 2021

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  Call for Papers (February 2021)  
 
 
 

In Press: The probiotic bacterium Pediococcus ethanolidurans modulate malaria infection in Plasmodium berghei ANKA infected mice



                 

Liliane Laure Toukam1, Bertrand Tatsinkou Fossi2, Germain Taiwe Sotoing3, Enyong Peter Ivo4, and Eric Akum Achidi5

1 Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, PO Box 63 Buea, Cameroon
2 Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, PO Box 63 Buea, Cameroon
3 Department of Zoology and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, PO Box 63 Buea, Cameroon
4 Research Foundation for Tropical disease and Environment (REFOTDE), PO Box 47 Buea, Cameroon
5 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Buea, PO Box 63 Buea, Cameroon

Original language: English

Received 7 December 2020

Copyright © 2021 ISSR Journals. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract


Background: Malaria still remains one of the most leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Until date, Resistance to the known fast acting antimalarial drugs, lack of license effective malaria vaccine and resistance of vector to insecticides remain a key challenge in eradicating the scourge of this disease. Therefore, there is a dire need for alternative antimalarial therapeutic agents or approaches that will help in preventing further increase of this disease. One alternative antimalarial possibility is the use of probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp. as dietary supplements.Aim: This study aimed at assessing the effects of a probiotic bacterium Pediococcus ethanolidurans on Bal/c mice infected with chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei ANKA.Methods: The probiotic bacterium used in this study was isolated from the Cameroonian Mborro Fulani’s traditionally fermented milk and was identified by sequencing its 16S r RNA gene. The repository activity of Pediococcus ethanoliduran on malaria infection in Plasmodium berghei infected mice was evaluated using the method described by Peters (1965) with slight modification. Forty-two healthy young adult balb/c were randomly divided into 7 group of 6 mice each and were orally given 9.108 cfu/ mL, 1.8x109cfu/ mL and 2.7. x109 cfu/ mL of Pediococcus ethanolidurans, 0.1mL of Chloroquine (10 mgkg−1), sulfadoxine pyrimethamine (30 mg/kg−1) and 0.1mL of vehicle (PBS) for seven and for fourteen days before infection with 0.1 mL of 107 Plasmodium berghei parasite. Parasitemia, parasitemia percentage suppression, body weight loss, body temperature, survival time and some inflammatory cytokines level were evaluated. Data were presented as Mean ± SEM (standard deviation error of the mean) and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 statistical software (IBM, SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).Results: The probiotic bacterium significantly increase the parasite suppression as the dose of the probiotic bacterium increased, with maximum suppression being 100% at dose 3 on day 20. Also, they significantly prevented body weight loss and body temperature reduction and significantly (p<0.05) increase Interleukin 10 (Il-10) and reduce some proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-1β and IL-6) in treated mice as compared to untreated mice. This bacterium was also capable to significantly increase the level of red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, lymphocytes monocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils of treated mice when compared with that of untreated mice.Conclusion: Based on these results we therefore concluded that Pediococcus ethanolidurans is a probiotic bacterium with protective effects on malaria infection in the chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei infected mice.

Author Keywords: Malaria, Probiotics, Parasitemia, Plasmodium berghei, Balb/c mice, cytokines.